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Seleucia

(1,530 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Wagner, Jörg (Tübingen) | Martini, Wolfram (Gießen) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Brandt, Hartwin (Chemnitz)
(Σελεύκεια/ Seleúkeia, Latin Seleucia). [German version] [1] S. on the Tigris This item can be found on the following maps: Diadochi and Epigoni | Hellenistic states | India, trade with (Σελεύκεια ἡ ἐπὶ τῷ Τίγρει/ Seleúkeia hē epì tôi Tígrei: Str. 16,738; 743; 750 et passim; Latin Seleucia Magna: Plin. HN 6,43, cuneiform Selukuja [1], modern Tall Umar). On the right bank of the Tigris, c. 60 km north-east of Babylon and 35 km south of Baghdad, at the mouth of the Nahr Malkā (connecting canal between the Tigris and Euphrates) and thus very favourably located …

Aphrodisias

(1,126 words)

Author(s): Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Ἀφροδισίας; Aphrodisías). [German version] [1] City in  Caria This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Byzantium | Asia Minor | Marble | Rome | Education / Culture City in  Caria, 38 km south of the Maeander, in the left side valley of the Morsylos (present-day Dandalaz çayı); the modern Geyre. Traces of neolithic and early Bronze Age settlement on the acropolis; old name of Νινόη (Steph. Byz. s. v. Ninoe) preserved in the local cult ( Zeus Nineudios). A. was for a long time overshadowed by the neighbouring co…

Calycadnus

(172 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Καλύκαδνος; Kalýkadnos). Most important and abundant (Amm. Marc. 14,3,15) river in Cilicia Tracheia ( Cilices) in Isauria, whose southern tributary (modern Gevne Çayı) rises in the border region of Pamphylia and Isauria, passes through the Cietis to the south of Germanicopolis to its confluence near  Claudiopolis [2] with the other tributary (Gök Çayı) from the region of Bozkır in the border region of Lycaonia and Isauria; then called Göksu, it flows via Seleucia (Roman bridge from the time of Vespasian) and reaches the Mediterranean after c. 15 km (navigable in…

Cilician Gates / Ciliciae Pylae

(351 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Täuber, Hans (Vienna)
(Πύλαι Κιλίκιαι; Pýlai Kilíkiai). [German version] [1] Narrow passage through the Taurus Narrow passage through the  Taurus at a height of 1,050 m, these day deeply buried underneath the motorway, modern Gülek Boğazı, through which passed the road from Tyana/Cappadocia to Tarsus/Cilicia (Str. 12,2,7); this pass played an important role i.a. in Xenophon's Anabasis (Xen. An. 1,4,4; 401 BC), during Alexander the Great's campaign (cf. Arr. Anab. 2,4,3; 333 BC), and in the fight of Septimius Severus against Pescennius Niger (Cass. Dio 74,7,1; AD193/4)…

Pylae

(411 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Pylae Gadeirides The Straits of Gibralter (Πύλαι Γαδειρίδες; Pýlai Gadeirídes). The Straits of Gibraltar; the sound (saddle depth 286 m), which is about 60 km long and at its narrowest point 13 km wide, lies between the southern tip of the Spanish Peninsula and the continent of Africa, and between the Mediterranean (Mare nostrum) in the east and Oceanus in the west. The ancient names for the straits are based on Gades (Plin. HN 3,3; 5; 74; 4,93: Gaditanum fretum; Plut. Sertorius 8,1: Γαδειραῖος πορθμός/ Gadeiraîos porthmós), on the temple of Heracles in Gades ('…

Aleion Pedion

(84 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Ἀλήϊον πεδίον; Alḗïon pedíon). Fertile, well-irrigated flatland in  Cilicia Pedias with trees of all types, grapevines, sesame and grain (Xen. An. 1,2,22), according to Eust. Commentary on Dionys. Per. (GGM 2,370) between  Cydnus and Pinarus (likely what is meant here is the  Pyramus), today Çukurova, with  Adana as the centre; rich cotton production. According to legend it was here that  Bellerophon fell from  Pegasus (Dionys. Per. 871 f.). Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography A. Erzen, Kilikien bis zum E. der Perserherrschaft, 1940, 14 f.

Sarus

(178 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] [1] (Σάρος/ Sáros). River in Cilicia Pedias, modern Seyhan, rising on the Taurus in Cappadocian Cataonia and flowing through Comana [1], past Adana and ultimately into the sea to the west of Magarsa (this branch has dried up); it is for this reason often conflated with the Pyramus [1]. In the early Byzantine Period, the S. was still navigable as far as Adana (Procop. Aed. 5,5,8 f.; cf. also Xen. An. 1,4,1; Liv. 33,41,7; Str.  12,2,3; Ptol. 5,8,4). Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography W. Ruge, RE 2 A, 34  Hild/Hellenkemper, 28, 398 f. [German version] [2] Rex Gothorum, AD…

Pyramus

(434 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Gauly, Bardo Maria (Kiel)
(Πύραμος/ Pýramos). [German version] [1] Easternmost of the three rivers in Cilicia Pedias Easternmost of the three rivers in Cilicia Pedias (Cydnus, Sarus [1]; Cilices, Cilicia), mentioned as early as Scyl. 102, modern Ceyhan. Rising in Cataonia in Cappadocia, in Antiquity its mouth, on a now defunct branch, lay to the west of Magarsa near the ancient mouth of the Sarus. Because of this the two rivers were occasionally conflated. Today the mouth has shifted far to the east because of alluvial deposits (this…

Celenderis

(100 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization (Κελένδερις; Kelénderis). Town in  Cilicia Tracheia (Str. 14,5,3), founded by the Syrian Sandacus, colonized by Samos [1. 105]; the harbour with its ornate arcades is depicted on a mosaic (cf. also Tab. Peut. 10,3; [4]), modern Gilindire. Member of the  Delian League. Captured by the Sassanids in AD 260 (Res Gestae divi Saporis 30). Suffragan diocese of Seleucia/Calycadnus. Renamed as Palaiopolis in the Middle Ages. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography 1 E. Blumenthal, Die altgriech. Siedlungskolon…

Dalisandus

(52 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Δαλισανδός; Dalisandós). Name of several towns that lay in Cilicia Tracheia, presumably near Sinabıç [1], near Belören in Lycaonia [2] or in eastern Pamphylia [3]. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography 1 Hild/Hellenkemper, s.v. Dalisandos 2 D. H. French, The site of Dalisandus, in: EA 4, 1984, 85-98 3 J. Darrouzès, Notitiae episcopatuum Ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae, 1981.

Anchiale

(384 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Ἀγχιάλη; Anchiálē). [German version] [1] Cretan nymph Cretan nymph, mother of the Idaan  Daktyloi Tities and Cyllenus (birth myth in Apoll. Rhod. 1,1129-31) and, as lover of Apollo, mother of Oaxes also, the founder of the Cretan city of Oaxus (Serv. ecl. 1,65). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] (Anchialos) City on the western coast of Pontus This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Christianity | Moesi, Moesia (Anchialus; Ἀγχίαλος; Anchíalos) City on the western coast of Pontus, present-day Pomorije, founded by and dependent on  Apollon…

Mopsucrene

(27 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Μοψουκρήνη/ Mopsoukrḗnē; Nampsucrone, Itin. Anton. 145,5; Mansucrinae, Itin. Burdig. 579,2). Road station between Tarsus and the Cilician Gates [1]. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography Hild/Hellenkemper, 359f.

Nagidus

(109 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization (Νάγιδος; Nágidos). Samian colony (Mela 1,77) [1. 117f.], 18 km east-north-east of Anemurium on the coast of Cilicia Tracheia, modern Bozyazı; with 5th- or 4th-cent. BC city wall and a harbour protected by the island of Nagidusa lying opposite to the south. In the Roman period, N. seems to have lost its status as polis to its eastern neighbour Arsinoe [III 3], and by the Middle Ages it was known only as a ruin. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography 1 E. Blumenthal, Die altgriechische Siedlungskolonisation im…

Corycus

(149 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Zenobia (Κώρυκος/ Kṓrykos). Port in Cilicia Tracheia, which, in rivalry with the neighbouring Elaeussa, declined to a village ( kṓmē) at the beginning of the 3rd cent. AD, but then became a bishopric (suffragan to Tarsus in Cilicia I) and, according to the evidence of numerous inscriptions and impressive buildings (more than 10 basilicae), a commercial and industrial metropolis of supra-regional significance. The last Christian port on the southern coast of Asia …

Soli

(466 words)

Author(s): Senff, Reinhard (Bochum) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Σόλοι; Sóloi). [German version] [1] City on the northern coast of Cyprus This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Kypros | Diadochi and Epigoni | Education / Culture City on the northern coast of Cyprus at modern Karavostasi with a harbour which was also usable in winter (Scyl. 103; Str. 14,6,3). According to Plut. Solon 26,2 named after Solon [1], who advised the king Philocyprus of Aepeia to relocate his unfavourably situated city to the plain. But according to Str. loc. cit. S. was founded by Phalerus and Ac…

Apadnas

(125 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Ἀπάδνας; Apádnas). Town with monastery in  Isauria; according to Procop. Aed. 5,9,33 refurbished by Emperor Justinian I. Probably the assemblage of structures above a   mansio on the Roman road through the  Taurus to Lycaonia; nowadays called Alahan Manastır. An early Christian anchorite settlement was developed in the 5th cent. AD into a place of pilgrimage, with a ἀπαντητήρια ( apantētḗria; hostel) attested by inscriptions; two monumental churches were linked by a c. 130 m long   porticus . Also used as a monastery, abandoned in the middle of the Byzantine period. Hil…

Lamus

(231 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
(Λάμος/ Lámos). [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon, king of the Laestrygones Son of Poseidon, old king of the Laestrygones and constructor of their stronghold at Telepylus (Hom. Od. 10,81ff.; Ov. Met. 14,233). On account of the identity of Telepylus and Formiae, Hor. Carm. 3,17 imagines his friend Aelius Lamia from Formiae to be L.'s offspring. …

Hagia Thekla

(180 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Ἁγία Θέκλα; Hagía Thékla), modern Ayatekla, Meryemlik. Important place of pilgrimage extended in the manner of a city with a wall, cisterns, an aqueduct and several huge churches (monasteries) south of Seleucia on the Calycadnus in western Cilicia with a cult tradition involving older sanctuaries of Apollo Sarpedonius, Athene, and Artemis (as πότνια θηρῶν, ‘Mistress of beasts’). Aside from the apocryphal Acts ( Pauli) et Theclae, the vita and miracula of St Thecla are preserved from the middle of the 4th cent. [1]. Gregory of Nazianzus stayed here from 376 to 379, and the nun Egeria in 384. Emperor Zeno had a new church built after 476 for St Thecla (over her burial cave?). With the end of Christian-Armenian rule in Cilicia (1375), memory of the saint was lost. The place name Meryemlik means ‘Place of St Mary’. Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography 1 G. Dagron, Vie et miracles de Sainte Thècle, 1978. …

Sarpedon

(481 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Σαρπηδών/ Sarpēdṓn). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and Laodameia [1]. Son of Zeus and Laodameia [1]. In the Trojan War, S. and his cousin Glaucus [4] command the Lycians (Lycii), the strongest and remotest allies of the Trojans (Hom. Il. 2,876-877; the name S. is also of Lycian origin [1]). Zeus' son S. wins a duel with Zeus' grandson Tlepolemus (ibid. 5,628-662) and plays a decisive part in storming the defensive wall around the Greek camp (ibid. 12,290-471). Here his rousing speech to Glaucus (ibid. 12,310-328) bears traits of an 'early Greek princes' mirror'. Later Zeus considers preventing the predestined death of his son. Swayed by Hera, Zeus sends a significant portent (a rain of blood) of S.'s fatal duel with Patroclus [1] (ibid. 16,459). S.'s body is removed to Lycia by Hypnos (Sleep) and Thanatos (Death) and buried there (ibid. 16,681-683; on parallel narrative motifs and S. cults in Lycia see [2. 370-373]). A divergent genealogy first found in Hes. fr. 140 M.-W. may be earlier. It names Europe/Europa [2] as mother and makes S. a brother of Minos and Rhadamanthys, locating S. in Crete. Ancient writers 'resolve' the geographical and chronological problems in different ways. According to Herodotus (1,173) the Lycians are originally from Crete, and S. was expelled thence as the result of a dispute over succession with Minos (other sources give S. as the founder of Miletus: Ephorus F 127.) According to Diodorus (5,79,3), this S. is the grandfather of the one who fought at Troy, while in Apollodorus (3,5) Zeus gives …

Eirenoupolis

(73 words)

Author(s): Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
[German version] (Εἰρηνούπολις; Eirēnoúpolis). Today Çatalbadem (formerly İrnebol) in Cilicia Tracheia (in the region of Lacanitis, Ptol. 5,7,6). Founded by Antiochus IV of Commagene. From AD 355 to 359, the city was surrounded by a wall. From the early 4th cent., it belonged to the province of Isauria; diocese (suffragan of Seleucea on the Calycadnus). Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) Bibliography G. Bean, T. B. Mitford, Journeys in Rough Cilicia 1964-1968, 1970, 205ff. Hild/Hellenkemper, s.v. E. 1).
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