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Advertizing

(528 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Probably the simplest and most effective way of advertising a product or announcing something was shouting aloud in market-places and streets (cf. propaganda). Moreover, the geographical origin of a product spoke for its quality; there is, for instance, a tradition of formulations such as 'Tarentine' or 'Amorgian cloth', 'Chian wine', 'Falernian wine', etc. as a seal of approval or a mark of quality. Advertising could also occur in a written form on the walls of buildings (Graffiti), in letters, epigrams, etc. In contrast to commercial advertising are the kalo…

Paragaudes

(150 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (παραγαύδης; paragaúdēs). Descriptive term first recorded only in the 3rd cent. AD for a gold or purple border in the form of the Greek letter gamma (Γ), which was woven into garments (SHA Claud. 17,6). Later also transferred to a particular garment ( paragaúdion) made from fine silk material, similar in style to a sleeved chiton, which Roman emperors gave as an award of honour, decorated with at least one and up to five of these borders depending on distinction and service (SHA Aurelian. 15,4,46; SHA Probus 4,5). For that…

Acclamatio

(339 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Rhythmic acclamations, sometimes spoken in unison, expressing congratulations, praise, applause, joy or the contrary. Besides the initially prevalent, spontaneous acclamatio, during the course of time a stereotyped acclamatio, which was always repeated on certain occasions, gained currency. There is an early mention of acclamatio in Hom. Il. 1,22, and acclamatio is also known to have marked decisions in Greek popular assemblies [1] and cult gatherings. In Rome, at wedding processions the acclamatio took the form of Talasse and Hymen, Hymenaee io (Catull. 61-6…

Pedum

(284 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence)
[German version] [1] An arm-length stick (Latin for καλαῦροψ/ kalaûrops, κορύνη/ korýnē, λαγωβόλον/ lagōbólon, ῥάβδος καμπύλη/ rhábdos kampýlē, ῥόπαλον/ rhópalon, 'rabbit stick'). A knotted stick, the length of an arm, with a curved end, which could also be decorated (Verg. Ecl. 5,888-892). The p edum could be a shepherd's staff (e.g. Anth. Pal. 6,177; Theocr. Epigr. 7,43), but it was also used by hunters as a throwing stick, particularly in hunting hares (Anth. Pal. 6,188; 296). Hence, in literary and artistic representations peda are attributes of such mythical hunters such…

Tunica

(300 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] The tunica, cut and sewn from two pieces of generally white woollen or linen material, was worn by both men and women of the Roman upper classes as an undergarment (Suet. Aug. 94,10) underneath the toga , and as the sole garment by the lower classes. Women often seem to have worn two tunicae, one above the other, with the inner one then referred to as tunica subucula (Varro Ling. 5,131) and the outer one as supparus. In very cold or inclement weather, men, too, would wear layers of tunics (Suet. Aug. 82,1). Originally, tunics were close-fitting and sleeve…

Fan

(391 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ῥιπίς, rhipís; flabellum). Fans were used in the Orient and in Egypt from ancient times as symbols of status. The fan probably did not reach Greece until the 5th cent. BC; Eur. Or. 1426-1430 (first mention) still calls the fan ‘barbaric’, but it quickly became one of a woman's most important accoutrements (cf. Poll. 10,127); she would either cool herself with it or have a female servant fan her (cf. the flabellifera in Plaut. Trin. 252 and the flabrarius as her male counterpart in Suet. Aug. 82). On Greek vases and terracotta (‘Tanagra figurines’) fans are…

Monopodium

(145 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (Greek trápeza monópous, Poll. 10,69). Round or rectangular tables with only one central support, whose foot could be carved into floral or mythical motifs. In Greece such tables had been used since the Archaic period but only became more common in Hellenistic times; in Rome, monopodia were very popular ever since their first introduction to the public, being carried along in the triumph of 187 BC (Liv. 39,6,7; Plin. HN. 34,14). Most of those that survive come from the towns around Vesuvius. Varro, (Ling. 5,125) mentions the cartibulum which stood in the compluvium

Guessing games

(331 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Only a small number of these are known from antiquity ( Riddles). In order to determine who should start, people liked to choose the game capita aut navia. It is named after the ancient Roman coins with the head of  Ianus ( capita) and a ship's prow ( navia, probably a plural paralleling capita). People threw a coin up into the air: one had to guess (as in the modern game ‘heads or tails’) which image came to lay on top. A guessing game for two players was par-impar (ἀρτιάζειν/ artiázein or ποσίνδα/ posínda): the first person holds in his right hand a number of relativel…

Cothurnus

(248 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (ὁ κόθορνος; ho kóthornos, cot[h]urnus). The Greek cothurnus was a high-shafted soft leather boot that fitted tightly to the leg and foot (and, by extension, was used as a synonym for an adaptable person in Xen. Hell. 2,3,30-31). It was wrapped with bands or tied at an opening at the front. The cothurnus is mentioned as women's footwear (Aristoph. Eccl. 341-346; Lys. 657), but was worn in particular by elegant youths at a symposium and  komos. It was the preferred footwear of Hermes, …

Perizoma

(206 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (περίζωμα/ perízōma, Latin perizoma). Greek apron for covering the lower body, worn around the abdomen and held with a belt, as a cloth wrapped round the hips and then passed between the legs, or in the form of a garment similar to a pair of shorts. Perizomata were worn by labourers, artisans, sacrifice attendants, priests, slaves, and also soldiers (cf. Pol. 6,25,3; 12,26a 4) and athletes as their only clothing (Nudity C.) or as an undergarment. In iconography it is mostly men that are shown wearing perizomata, less often female figures such as Atalante and Gorgo…

Lasimus Krater

(112 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] A volute krater much cited from the late 18th to the early 20th cent. because of its inscription which mentions another lower Italian vase painter (Paris, LV, Inv. K 66 [N 3147], [1]). Research at that time discussed the written form of the letters and the artistic classification of the supposed vase painter Lasimus. Only recent research proved the inscription to be a recent addition. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliography 1 Trendall/Cambitoglou, 914, no. 36. S. Reinach, Peintures de vases antiques recueillés par Millin (1813) et Millingen (1813), 1891, 64-67 S. Favi…

Tropaion

(462 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Originally, the tropaion (τρόπαιον/ trópaion; Lat. tropaeum) was a sign erected by the victorious army at the place on the battlefield where the adversary turned to flee (from Greek τρέπειν/ trépein, 'to turn around'). In the language use of later Antiquity, it referred to victory monuments in general, such as the Tropaea Augusti (cf. e.g. Tac. Ann. 15,18). The term tropaion has been common since the 5th cent. BC (Batr. 159; Aesch. Sept. 277). The tropaion consisted of a tree stump or post, sometimes with crosspieces (cf. Diod. Sic. 13,24,5) on which the…

Sabanum

(90 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] A Roman coarse linen cloth, used to dry off and rub down the body after bathing (Apul. Met. 1,23, cf. Mart. 12,70) or to wrap around the body, in order to raise a sweat after a steam bath; a sabanum was also used to squeeze out honeycombs and to envelop food during the cooking process (Apicius 6,215; 239). Late Antiquity understood a sabanum to be a linen garment decorated with gold and precious stones (Ven. Fort. Vita S. Radegundis 9) or a coat. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)

Keroma

(84 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (κήρωμα; kḗrōma, Lat. ceroma). In the medical sense, a salve or cerate, Hippoc. Acut. 8 (vol. 2, p. 424) or a salve (Mart. 4,4,10). In Imperial Rome, keroma designated a wax tablet, and also the clayey wax-coloured surface of a wrestling ring that soils the body or neck of the athletes (Juv. 3, 68); from this, the term keroma was extended to the ring or arena itself (Plin. HN 30,5). Also, those employed there were called kērōmatistaí. Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)

Fasciae

(238 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] Bandages, bindings, straps of different kinds were made of various materials (felt, leather, linen, wool), and could be white or coloured. Fasciae as a category includes the straps of the bed ( lectus,   kline ) on which the mattress was laid,  swaddling cloths (σπάργανα, spárgana) and fasciae crurales, bindings designed to protect the lower legs ( fasciae tibiales) or thighs (  feminalia) against the cold. The use of fasciae was regarded as unmanly, and for men was restricted to invalids, but even Augustus (Suet. Aug. 82,1) and Pompey (Cic. Att. 2…

Klismos

(111 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (κλισμός; klismós, Latin cathedra). The klismos is a high chair without armrests and with a broad, curved backrest, attested as early as in Homer (e.g. Il. 8,436; Od. 4,136) as a seat for nobility, gods, and heroes. Greek and Roman art confirms this, but the klismos is often seen in representations of domestic rooms, schools, and other everyday scenes as well. At times, the seated persons laid an arm on the backrest for comfort and relaxation, and often the relaxed way of sitting is supported by footrests and cushions. Diphros; Furniture Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) Bibliogr…

Mitra

(396 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Piece of armour (μίτρα/ mítra; μίτρη/ mítrē). (1) According to Homer (Hom. Il. 4,137; 187; 216; 5,857) a piece of armour worn to protect the lower body, identified by archaeological research with semicircular plates of bronze, dating from the early Archaic period and found particularly on Crete. Similarly, mitra is the name of a piece of armour worn by the Salii (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,70; Plut. Numa 13,4). (2) Belt for young women (Theocr. 27,55, cf. μιτροχίτων/ mitrochítōn, Athen. 12,523d) and goddesses (Callim. H. 1,120; 4,222, Epigr. 39) and also for…

Stola

(181 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] The stola was the garment worn in public by Roman matrons ( Matrona [1]), i.e. free-born women (Plin. HN 33,40), over a fairly close-fitting tunica or a looser calasis and under a palla, so that their bodies were entirely  enveloped (cf. Hor. Sat. 1,2,99). It reached to the ankles and was capacious, pleated and cinctured at bust or waist level (Mart. 3,93,4). The stola consisted of a tube of material which the wearer slipped into; it was held on the shoulders by means of twisted ribbons or strings. It had trimming ( instita) on the lower selvage, presumably a purple rib…

Thymiaterion

(457 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | A.FR., Hans Georg
(θυμιατήριον/ thymiatḗrion). [German version] I. Classical Antiquity Fumigating apparatus for burning aromatic substances (incense etc.) - adopted by ancient Greek culture from the Orient - of bronze, clay, precious metals, less often stone, used in cults of gods, rulers and the dead. The thymiaterion was part of the domestic inventory (Dem. Or. 24,183) and was used on celebratory occasions in the private sphere (wedding, symposion). They were carried in festal processions (Ath. 5,196 f). The thymiaterion consisted of a fumigating capsule with a perforated lid, in whic…

Culter

(133 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] (Greek μάχαιρα, máchaira). Originally the  knife, specifically the knife of butchers and therefore the butchering tool in  sacrifices (Hom. Hym. Apoll. 535f. for máchaira). On Greek and Roman representations, the hiereús or the victimarius has the sacrificial knife brought to him on a tray or holds it in his hand. The culter was used to open the carotid artery of the sacrificial animal and to cut out its intestines. The sacrificing victimarius was also called cultrarius after the sacrificial knife. Furthermore, the culter was the attribute of oriental peoples w…
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