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Chaos

(3,417 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph | Janowski, Bernd | Yarbro Collins, Adela | Drees, Willem B. | Gregersen, Niels Henrik | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Biblical – III. Philosophy of Religion – IV. Dogmatics – V. Ethics – VI. Science I. History of Religions 1. So-called chaos researc…

Image of God

(2,928 words)

Author(s): Janowski, Bernd | Markschies, Christoph | Wielandt, Rotraud
[German Version] I. Old Testament and Judaism – II. Christianity – III. Islam I. Old Testament and Judaism 1. Only in three passages does the Old Testament speak of humankind's being made…

Hereafter, Concepts of the

(5,151 words)

Author(s): Hutter, Manfred | Janowski, Bernd | Necker, Gerold | Haase, Mareile | Rosenau, Hartmut | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. History of Religions – III. Philosophy of Religion – IV. Art History I. Religious Studies All cultures have concepts of a hereafter or beyond (“the next world”), although they are extremely diverse. They involve a realm of existence different from the visible earthly world but nevertheless thought of as real. Concepts of the hereafter are part of cosmology and therefore are related to the real world: the hereafter may be localized above or below the earth, in inaccessible regions, for example; tombs, caves, and springs are popular gateways to it. The upper air (“heaven”) can also serve as a beyond or hereafter. The hereafter can also have sociological aspects; this is the case when its inhabitants are together in family groups or are united with their ancestors (Ancestors, Cult of). Not uncommonly deities associated with the hereafter appear in groups or hierarchies analogous to social groups on earth. Such observations show that concepts of the hereafter are substantially shaped by the cultures in which they are set; generalizations about concepts of the hereafter are hardly feasible. The close relationship between this w…

Human Beings

(18,165 words)

Author(s): Gregersen, Niels H. | Grünschloß, Andreas | Figal, Günter | Janowski, Bernd | Lichtenberger, Hermann | Et al.
[German Version] I. Natural Sciences and Psychology – II. Religious Studies – III. Philosophy – IV. Old Testament – V.…

Eternal Life

(6,584 words)

Author(s): Braun, Hans-Jürgen | Janowski, Bernd | Vouga, François | van den Brom, Luco J. | Necker, Gerold | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. History of Religions – III. Old Testament – IV. New Testament – V. Philosophy of Religion – VI. Dogmatics – VII. Judaism …

Substitution

(3,183 words)

Author(s): Winter, Franz | Janowski, Bernd | Frey, Jörg | Schaede, Stephan | Pree, Helmuth | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies The term substitution, originating in the language of law, is used primarily in Christian theology, but it is well suited for use in religious studies as well, even though so far there has been no detailed systematic treatment of it. In the most general sense, we speak of substitution when the true subject affected or acting (God, an individual like the king, or a collective) is represented by another ¶ entity (a person or group, an animal, or an object) as a substitute involved (actively or passively) in the action, acting for the…

Lament

(3,175 words)

Author(s): Alles, Gregory D. | Janowski, Bernd | Bayer, Oswald | Baldermann, Ingo | Kuhn, Peter
[German Version] Lament I. Religious Studies – II. Bible – III. Systematic Theology – IV. Practical Theology – V. Judaism I. Religious Studies

Biblical Theology

(5,039 words)

Author(s): Janowski, Bernd | Welker, Michael
[German Version] I. Exegesis – II. Fundamental theology I. Exegesis 1. “Biblical Theology” (BT) is not an unambiguous term. It means either “the theology contained in the Bible” or “theology in accordance with the Bible, with ¶ scripture” (Ebeling 69–70). In the first sense, BT is a historical concept; in the second, a normative concept. In the first instance, it concerns a particular theological discipline; in the second, the nature of theology…

Expiation

(3,758 words)

Author(s): Hock, Klaus | Janowski, Bernd | Günter, Röhser | Stolina, Ralf | Stroh, Ralf
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Bible – III. Dogmatics – IV. Ethics I. Religious Studies While (re)conciliation as an instrument for reaching an amicable settlement in a lawsuit has echoes of the legal ¶ dimension of expiation, the meaning of expiation (appeasement, pacification) refers first of all to the (re)establishment of an undisturbed state or of a “sound” relationship. In contrast to atonement (Re…

Scapegoat

(456 words)

Author(s): Janowski, Bernd
[German Version] As part of the ritual for the great Day of Atonement, (Lev 16, cf. 23:26ff.; Num 29:7 ff.), the high priest Aaron lays his hands (Laying-on of hands) on a he-goat, the so-called scapegoat (Vulgate caper emissarius, Fr. bouc émissaire, Ger. Sündenbock), putting the sins of the Israelites on its head and then employing someone designated to take it to “an isolated place” or “the wilderness” (Lev 16:8, 10, 21f.), where rabbinic tradition says that it meets its death ( m. Yoma). Various interpretations have been proposed for the name Azazel (עֲזָאזֵל; Lev 16:8, 10, 26) that…

Cain and Abel

(1,259 words)

Author(s): Janowski, Bernd | Zchomelidse, Nino
[German Version] I. Old Testament – II. Art History I. Old Testament Cain and Abel, the children of the first human couple Adam and Eve, are the protagonists of one of the characteristic fraternal narratives of the book of Genesis (cf. Jacob and Esau). Their names are semantically associated with the pre- or non-priestly Paradise narrative of Gen 3*: While the meaning “transitoriness” may be discerned in the name Abel (הֶבֶל, Gen 4:2, 4, 8f., 25), the name Cain (קַיִן, Gen 4:1–25, Tubal-Cain Gen 4:22 [a description of metallurgical skills], as a tribal name in Nu…

Creation

(11,110 words)

Author(s): Friedli, Richard | Janowski, Bernd | Herrmann, Klaus | Wischmeyer, Oda | Gunton, Colin E. | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Old Testament – III. Judaism – IV. New Testament – V. History of Theology – VI. Creation and Preservation – VII. Religious Education – VIII. Islam – IX. Science – X. Art History I. History of Religion 1. Fundamentals Life, nature, the environment, the passage of time – these are everyday experiences for any society. But reality also includes the danger that this world may be imperiled or perilous. Chaos and death are part …

Brunner, Hellmut

(206 words)

Author(s): Janowski, Bernd
[German Version] (May 11, 1913, Frankfurt am Main– Feb 18, 1997, Tübingen) received his doctorate under Alexander Scharff from Munich in 1936, habilitated in 1942, was assistant to the Protestant theology faculty at Tübingen beginning in 1950, named extraordinary professor in 1960, Professor of Egyptology in 1964, and emeritus since 1978. Brunner was the founding father of Egyptology at Tübingen and made important contributions to the study of Egyptian language ( Abriß der mittelägyptischen Grammatik, 21967), Egyptian history, literature and religion ( Grundzüge einer Geschic…

Psalms/Psalter

(13,915 words)

Author(s): Hartenstein, Friedhelm | Janowski , Bernd | Hartenstein , Friedhelm | Janowski, Bernd | Häußling, Angelus A. | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology and Scope The book of Psalms is a unique collection of 150 poetic texts compiled to make a work sui generis. Its Hebrew title תְּהִלִּים(סֵפֶר) /( sēper) tĕhillîm, “(Book of) Praises,” is already found at Qumran (earliest instance: 4QMa [= 4Q491] 174, 1st cent. bce). As in the New Testament occurrences from about a century later (Luke 20:42; Acts 1:20: βίβλος ψαλμῶν/ bíblos psalmṓ n), it appears to be used primarily in the technical sense of a scroll containing psalms (cf. the frgm. 4QPs), but it might also denote a form of the Psalter. In 11QPsa, a collectio…

Kraus, Hans-Joachim

(274 words)

Author(s): Janowski, Bernd
[German Version] (Dec 17, 1918, Essen – Nov 14, 2000, Essen). After earning his doctorate in Heidelberg (1944) and his Habilitation in Bonn (1948; associate professor of Old Testament there from 1951), Kraus accepted an appointment as professor of OT in Hamburg in 1954, and was professor of Reformed theology in Göttingen from 1968 onward. The son of an Essen pastor, he grew up in Wuppertal. He was instrumental in establishing the Protestant theological faculty in Hamburg and became the successor of O. Weber in the …

Kingship, Divine

(1,326 words)

Author(s): Janowski, Bernd
[German Version] I. Concept and Terminology – II. Religio-historical Aspects – III. Theological Significance I. Concept and Terminology References to Yahweh's “kingdom” or “kingship,” using the abstract nouns מַלְכוּת/ malkût (1 Chron 17:14; 28:5; Pss 103:19; 145:11–13; Dan 3:33; 4:31 [Eng. 4:34]; etc.), מְלוּכָה/ mĕlûkāh (Obad 21; Ps 22:29*),מַמְלָכָה/ mamlākāh (1 Chron 29:11), and מֶמְשָׁלָה/ memšālāh (Pss 103:22; 114:2; 145:13), appear only in late texts of the Old Testament. Even if the notion is earlier (see II below), the disparity between th…

Light and Darkness

(2,010 words)

Author(s): Tröger, Karl-Wolfgang | Janowski, Bernd | Erlemann, Kurt
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament I. Religious Studies Light and darkness, day and night, the rising and setting of the life-giving sun determine the vital rhythm of nature and human beings; they find expression in feelings, in language and thought, in symbols and myths. Light is on the side of the gods, the sphere of the divine, the spirit. As a religious symbol, light represents life, salvation, and bliss. Darkness is ambiguous: it can ¶ signify death, perdition, and woe, but it can also represent protective concealment (hell, …

Shekhinah

(1,527 words)

Author(s): Janowski, Bernd | Reeg, Gottfried | Dan, Joseph | Moltmann, Jürgen
[German Version] I. Old Testament The word shekhinah (שְׁכִינָה), a postbiblical noun from the root שׁכן/ škn, “settle, dwell,” denotes an aspect of God’s presence in the world, usually translated as “indwelling” or “habitation.” The term indwelling suggests the Egyptian theology of cultic images, according to which the deity in heaven “descends” upon his image in the earthly temple and “unites” with it (Assmann). The earliest reference to the Old Testament shekhinah theology is in 1 Kgs 8:12f., in Solomon’s words at the dedicatio…

Retribution

(4,477 words)

Author(s): Neu, Rainer | Janowski, Bernd | Bendemann, Reinhard v. | Volkmann, Stefan | Buß, Johanna
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Retribution – recompense of good with good and evil with evil, in religion as reward (Payment) or punishment for human conduct, imposed in this life or the next by God or fate – is an aspect of reciprocity, the principle of quid pro quo (Merit). Richard Thurnwald was the first to point out the significance of reciprocity for social action and worldview in ethnic societies. It goes beyond reciprocating with a gift or assistance, or exchanging daughters between exogamous groups; the moral, legal, and religi…

Laying-On of Hands

(1,802 words)

Author(s): Mohn, Jürgen | Janowski, Bernd | Lips, Hermann v. | Biehl, Peter
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies The laying-on or imposition of hands is a physical gesture usually performed in the context of a ritualized series of actions or as a symbol by itself. It can be ascribed to a divine being conceived anthropomorphically. The ritual gesture is attested in many cultures, especially in the ancient Near East, but it is not universal – it is unknown, for example, in Buddhism and Islam. Its mean…
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