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Xois

(172 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Ξοίς; Xoís). Egyptian city in the northwestern Nile Delta, Egyptian ( pr-) Ḫsww, chief town of the Sixth District of Lower Egypt. Parts of the ancient settlement are beneath modern Saḫā; no others are extant. There are no archaeological remains from the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC and few textual references; most of the finds are from the Hellenistic and Roman periods. According to a dubious piece of information in Manetho [1] (FGrH 609 F 2,10), the 14th Dynasty ( c. 1650 BC) is supposed to originate from X. During the troubles at the end of the 19th Dynasty ( c. 1200 BC), th…

Bubastis

(119 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Egypt (Egyptian Pr-Bstt, Arabic Tell Basta). Town in the south-eastern delta of the Tanis arm of the Nile. Its primary deity was Bastet, originally a lion goddess, later particularly worshipped as a cat. Her festival is described in Hdt. 2,60. Temple structures are evident from as early as the Old Kingdom, but B. only gained significance with the 22nd dynasty, when it -- alongside Tanis -- became the residence of the Libyan kings. No later than the…

Bokchoris

(92 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] King in Lower Egypt ( c. 720-715 BC), Egyptian Bk-n-rn.f, second and last ruler of the 24th dynasty. He was dethroned by the Nubian king, Shabako, who conquered the whole of Egypt around 715 BC and, according to  Manetho, had B. burned alive. B.'s reign has very little contemporary attestation. All the greater, then, is his fame in later Egyptian and ancient tradition, which regarded him as a sage and a great legislator. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography Th. Schneider, Lex. der Pharaonen, 1994, 93f. LÄ 1, 846 RE 3, 66f.

Ibis

(221 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg)
(Egyptian hbj > Greek ἶβις; îbis). [German version] I. Egypt The ibis was considered a sacred bird (Hdt. 2, 65; 67; 75 and other ancient writers) in Egypt, where three species were found. Above all, the ‘Sacred ibis’ ( Threskiornis aethiopicus) was worshipped as the holy animal of  Thot, god of the moon and writing, and often represented. Ibis burials are known starting in the New Kingdom; in the Late Period, there were breeding colonies and animal cemeteries with mummified ibises everywhere in Egypt, particularly extensive in the chief cult centres of Thot. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) B…

Curse

(1,191 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Krebernik, Manfred (Munich) | Koch, Heidemarie (Marburg) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient, Egypt, Old Testament In the ancient Orient, the curse is considered to be a magically effective utterance by which the speaker destroys enemies or objects of their sphere, excludes them from the community or at the very least reduces their vitality. How effective this is depends upon the status of the speaker, the social context and the use of set phrases. There is no evidence of colloquial curses in the Near East and hardly any from Egypt. In the Near East set curse phrases are preserved from the mid 3rd millennium onward i…

Phiops

(288 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
(Φίοψ/ Phíops or Φιός/ Phiós). Greek form of the name of two Egyptian kings (Egyptian Pjpj). [German version] [1] P. I Third king of the 6th Egyptian dynasty Third king of the 6th dynasty ( c. 2300-2250 BC). Under his reign, expeditions to the Sinai [1], to Byblos [1], Nubia and Punt are attested. An inscription of P. was found in Palace G in Ebla. A courtier reported in his funerary inscription that there was a secret investigation of a harem conspiracy led by the queen [1. 98-110]; the same report mentions five military campaigns against Asian nomads. The name of the pyramid (-town) of P. ( Mn-nf…

Kalasiris

(47 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (καλάσιρις; kalásiris). According to Hdt. 2,81, a fringed linen undergarment worn by the Egyptians; according to Democr. (FGrH 267, F.1) also worn by Persians and Ionians, probably to be connected with the Egyptian warrior class of the Kalasirieis. Cf. Calasiris. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)

Taracus

(244 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Τάρκος/ Tárkos, Assyrian Tarqû, Egyptian  Th()rq(), in scholarly literature usually Taharka/o). Nubian king, third and most significant ruler (690-664 BC) of the Egyptian 25th Dynasty, throne name Ḫwj-Nfrtm-R. When he was 20 years old, he was summoned by his brother(?) and predecessor Sebichus from Nubia to Egypt, and led the Egyptian army in the (lost) battle of Eltekeh (ANET, 287 f.; 2 Kg 19,9) in 701 BC. In 690 BC, he succeeded Sebichus to the throne, according to his own account as his chosen succe…

Nilopolis

(115 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
(Νείλου πόλις/ Neílou pólis). [German version] [1] Settlement in Middle Egypt Settlement in Middle Egypt, 13 km north of Banī Suwaif, Coptic Tilodj, modern Dalāṣ. The settlement is not known from ancient Egyptian times; N. was a diocesan town in the Christian period. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) [German version] [2] Village in the Fayum Village in the Fayum, near Soknopaiou Nesos, modern Tall ar-Ruṣaṣ, with an Isis cult. Known from numerous papyrus finds from the later Ptolemaic to the Byzantine period. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography 1 A. Calderini, s.v. Nilopolis, …

Nectanebus

(474 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
Name of two Egyptian kings of the 30th Dynasty. [German version] [1] N. I Egyptian king, founder of the 30th Dynasty (380-363/2). Νεκτανέβις/-νίβις ( Nektanébis/- níbis), Egyptian Nḫt-nb.f; founder of the 30th Dynasty, son of a general Tachos ( Ḏd-ḥr) from Sebennytus. N. himself was a general under his predecessor Nepherites II, whom he overthrew shortly after his accession. Egypt had hardly any allies at the time, nevertheless it was able to ward off a Persian invasion attempt in 373 BC, in which the Athenian general Iphicrates participated on the Per…

Libyci montes

(76 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Plin. HN 3,3; λιβυκὸν ὄρος; libykòn óros, Hdt. 2,8; λιβυκὰ ὄρη; libykà órē, Ptol. 4,5,10, Str. 17,819). Name of the mountains bordering the Nile valley on the west in contrast to the ‘Arabian’ mountain range of the east bank. According to the ancient geographers, the Nile valley often forms the border between Libya and Arabia and consequently between Africa and Asia. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography H. Kees, s.v. L.m., RE 13, 148.

Sethos

(338 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
(Σέθως; Séthōs). Name of two pharaohs, Egyptian Stẖj. [German version] [1] S. I Second king of the 19th dynasty, c. 1290-1279 BC, already designated successor during the short reign of his father Ramesses [1] I. One of his epithets ('he who repeats creation') suggests that his reign was supposed to be seen as the beginning of a new era, and indeed it was: most of the defining characteristics of the 19th dynasty, which became particularly distinct in the time of his son Ramses [2] II, began with S. He undertook sev…

Metelis

(135 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Μέτηλις; Métēlis). Town in the north-western Nile delta, east of Alexandria; the precise location of M. and its Arab successor settlement of Maṣil remains unclear, but probably near Fuwwa (Kom el-Aḥmar?). In the Roman period, M. was the capital of a new nome of Metelites on the territory of the former 7th Lower Egyptian district. Its chief deity was Hathor/ Isis, who was honoured in the shape of a falcon (Egyptian bjk); the placename Bechis (Βῆχις; Bêchis), given by Steph. Byz. for M., is derived from this. In the Byzantine and Arab periods (until the 11…

Apries

(100 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] Fourth king of the 26th dynasty (589-570 BC), Egyptian Wḥ-jb-R, Hophra in the OT, son and successor to Psametich II. At the beginning of his reign, he intervenes unsuccessfully in Palestine against the rule of the Chaldaeans. His support of the Libyans of Cyrenaica against the Greeks there is just as unsuccessful. After a defeat, the army installs  Amasis as the new king. A. is beaten; the sources give contradictory accounts of his death, but he is buried as a king in Sais. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography Th. Schneider, Lex. der Pharaonen, 1994, 81-83 LÄ 1, 35…

Thmuis

(132 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Θμοῦις/ Thmoûis; Egyptian T-mw(t), 'new-land'), the modern ( Tall) Timay, town neighbouring Mendes in the northeast of the Nile delta; first mentioned in Jos. BI 4,659, but significantly older (cf. archaeological finds [1]; Hdt. 2,166). In the Roman period T. replaced Mendes as district capital; Amm. Marc. 22,16 cites T. among the most significant cities of Egypt. By 250 AD (until the 10th/11th cent.) T. was a bishopric. In the later…

Marea

(225 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] Town west of Alexandria [1], situated on the southern bank of Lake Mareotis in a famous wine-growing area (Str. 17,799); Egyptian mrt, modern Kaum al-Idrís, regarded in the Egyptian temple lists as in the 3rd district of lower Egypt, in Roman times however itself the capital of the Mareotis. M. is first attested in Hdt. 2,18, where it is stated that the inhabitants felt that they were Libyans. From the beginning of the 26th dynasty to the Persian period, the border garrison against Libya was situated …

Papremis

(88 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Πάπρεμις; Pápremis). Capital city of a nome in the western Nile delta, according to Hdt. (2,59; 63) with the cult  of Ares (= Horus?) at whose festival ritual mass battles took place. Hermotybians (Hdt. 2,165) settled in the nome of P., and the hippopotamus was worshipped there (Hdt. 2,71). In 460(?) BC, the Libyan prince Inarus defeated the Persians at P. Neither the etymology of P. nor its exact location have been conclusively established. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography H. de Meulenaere, s.v. P., LÄ 4, 666-667.

Tementhes

(154 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Τεμένθης/ Teménthēs). Egyptian king, according to Polyaenus, Strat. 7,3 (cf. FGrH 665 F 200) defeated near Memphis by Psammetichos [1] I with the aid of Carian mercenaries. T. is probably a Graecized form of Tanutamani, Egyptian Tnwt-Ymn, throne name B-k-R, the last king of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty (664-656 BC, not in Manetho [1]) and successor of Taracus (Taharqa). In 664 BC, T. reconquered Egypt as far as the Nile Delta, with Necho [1] I being killed. Shortly afterwards T. was driven out by troops of Assurbanipa…

Actisanes

(47 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] According to Diod. Sic. 1,60, Ethiopian king who freed Egypt from the rule of one Amasis and founded Rhinocoloura (El-Arish) as a penal colony. Neither his historicity nor his chronological position are certain. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography A. Burton, Diod. Sic., Book I, 1972, 180 f.

Somtutefnakht

(58 words)

Author(s): Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] (Egyptian Zm-twy-ty.f-nḫtt). Head of the Egyptian city of Heracleopolis Magna c. 660-630 BC, naval commander and supervisor of Upper Egypt, related to the royal house, an important ally of Psammetichus [1] I when the latter extended his power to Middle and Upper Egypt. Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) Bibliography G. Vittmann, Der demotische Papyrus Rylands 9, 1998, 708-713.
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