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Theoclymenus

(89 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
[German version] (Θεοκλύμενος; Theoklýmenos). Mythical seer from Argos, son of Polypheides and hence descendant of Melampus [1] (Hom. Od. 15,223-256). In Pylus [1] T., a fugitive for manslaughter, encounters Telemachus. The latter takes the supplicant with him to Ithaca, where initially he leaves him in the care of Piraeus (ibid. 15,256-286; 15,508-546). Later brought to the palace, T. tells Penelope that Odysseus is in the country again (ibid. 17,71-165), and foretells an imminent death for her suitors but is mocked as mad (ibid. 20,350-383). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)

Podargus

(53 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
[German version] (Πόδαργος/ Pódargos). Name of various mythical horses. P. is the name of a horse belonging to Hector (Hom. Il. 8,185), to Menelaus [1] ( ibid. 23,295), and of one of the man-eating horses of king Diomedes [1] of Thrace, which are killed by  Heracles [1] (Hyg. Fab. 30). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)

Psyche

(547 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
(Ψυχή; Psychḗ). [German version] [1] Lover of Amor Female protagonist in the novella Psyche et Cupido embedded in Apuleius' (Ap(p)uleius [III]) Metamorphoses (Apul. Met. 4,28-6,24). P., a royal princess, is honoured throughout the world by virtue of her extraordinary beauty as a new Venus. Thus spurned and thereby enraged, the true goddess Venus sends her son Cupid/Amor (Eros [1]) to punish P.; Cupid, however, falls in love with her. As P.'s singularity makes it impossible to find her a husband, her father consults the …

Perse(is)

(111 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
(Πέρση/ Pérsē, Περσηίς/ Persēís). [German version] [1] Daughter of Oceanus and Tethys Daughter of Oceanus and Tethys, wife of Helios, mother by the latter of Circe and Aeetes (Hom. Od. 10,136-139; Hes. Theog. 356; 956f.; Apollod. Epit. 7,14). Her children are varyingly named as: Aloeus, Pasiphae, Calypso, Perses [2] (Apollod. 1,83; schol. Lycoph. 174; 798b; Cic. Nat. D. 3,48; Hyg. Praef. Fab. 36 Marshall). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) [German version] [2] Epithet for Hecate as the daughter of Perses Epithet for Hecate as the daughter of Perses [1] (schol. and Eust. ad Hom. Od. …

Pylaea

(81 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
[German version] [1] Epithet of Demeter (Πυλαία/ Pylaía, Πυλαίη/ Pylaíē). Epithet of Demeter in her sanctuary at Thermopylae, where she was worshipped together with her daughter Persephone  (Callim. Epigr. 39; schol. Hom. Il. 16,174; cf. Erotianus, Vocum Hippocraticarum Collectio, s. v. Πύλας, p. 74 Nachmanson). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) [German version] [2] Assembly of the Delphic Amphictyonia (Πύλαια/ Pýlaia). Assembly of the Delphic Amphictyonia in the sanctuary of Demeter Amphiktyonis at Thermopylae [1. 175]. Gate, deities associated with Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) Bibliogra…

Sthen(n)o

(39 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
[German version] (Σθεν(ν)ώ/ Sthen(n)ṓ, 'the strong one'). One of the three Gorgons (Gorgo [1]), immortal daughter of Phorcys [1] and Ceto (Hes. Theog. 276; Apollod. 2,39; Nonnus Dion. 40,229), also Σθείνω/ Stheínō (Schol. Hes. Theog. 276). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)

Tegyrius

(102 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
[German version] (Τεγύριος; Tegýrios). Mythical king of the Thracians. T. takes in the banished Eumolpus and his son Ismarus and gives the son his daughter in marriage. Eumolpus flees to Eleusis when an ambush he has planned against T. is revealed. After Ismarus's death, however, T. calls Eumolpus back. They are reconciled and Eumolpus takes over power from T. (Apollod. 3,202). T., eponym of the Boeotian city of Tegyra, evidently does not belong to the historical Thracian people, but to the Thracian tribes that settled in Boeotia in the prehistoric period [1]. Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) Bibli…

Thyia, Thy(i)ades

(156 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
(Θυία/ Thyía, Θυῖα/ Thyîa, Θυίη/ Thyíē, plural Θυῖαι/ Thyîai; Θυ(ι)άς/ Thy(i)ás, plural Θυ(ι)άδες/ Thy(i)ádes, 'stormers'). [German version] [1] Eponymous Nymph of a Delphic sanctuary Eponymous Nymph of a small Delphic sanctuary (Hdt. 7,178), considered to be the first priestess of Dionysus in Delphi (Paus. 10,6,4). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) [German version] [2] Term for worshippers of Dionysus Primarily in the plural, a term for (female) worshippers of Dionysus, in poetry usually synonymous with Maenads or Bacchae (e.g. Soph. Ant. 1151; Apoll. Rhod. 1,…

Praxidice

(161 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
[German version] (Πραξιδίκη/ Praxidíkē). Greek goddess of oaths ('Executrix of Justice'), sister of  Zeus Soter and by him mother of Homonoia, Arete (who are also known as the Praxidíkai) and Ctesius (Mnaseas FHG 3, 152 fr. 17). According to Panyassis fr. 18 K Matthews, wife of Tremiles, mother of Tlos, Pinarus, Cragus. The plural Praxidíkai is also found as the byname of a threesome of goddesses (Dionysius of Chalcis FHG 4, 394 fr. 3) and the singular P. as the byname of Persephone (Orph. H. 29,5). An open-air sanctuary of the Praxidíkai was located at Haliartus in Boeotia; only care…

Pronoe

(67 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
(Προνόη; Pronóē). [German version] [1] Nereid One of the Nereids, according to Hes. Theog. 261. Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) Bibliography Preller/Robert 1, 556. [German version] [2] Soothsaying Lycian naiad Soothsaying Lycian naiad. After telling Caunus [1] of the death of his sister Byblis, P. takes him as her husband and transfers her realm to him. Their son is Aegialus (Conon FGrH 26 F 1,2). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)

Parthenope

(153 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
(Παρθενόπη; Parthenópē). [German version] [1] One of the three Sirens in southern Italy One of the three Sirens in southern Italy (Aristot. Mir. 103), as such probably the daughter of Achelous [2] (Sil. Pun. 12,34; Apollod. 1,18; 1,63). After P. plunged into the sea (Dionys. Per. 359), her corpse washed ashore near Naples where a monument was erected to her. This led to the development of a cult centre for P. who was honoured there with annual votive offerings (Lycoph. 717-721; Dionys. Per. 357f.). Between 440 and 430 BC annual torch races were introduced there as well (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 98). J…

Tyche

(702 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Falco
(Τύχη/ Týchē, Τύχα/ Týcha). [German version] [1] Greek goddess of fate Greek goddess of fate, the personification of the abstract term tyche ('fate', 'chance'; 'fortune' - both good and bad), etymologically related to the verb τυγχάνειν/ tynchánein ('hit', 'meet with', 'be favoured with', 'happen accidentally'). The close connection between the two aspects (by what is called 'Person-Bereichdenken') often makes it very difficult in Greek literature to distinguish between the deity and the abstraction [3.35-36]. No specific myth is associated with the personified figure…

Polymele

(137 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
(Πολυμήλη/ Polymḗlē, Πολυμήλα/ Polymḗla). [German version] [1] Mother of Jason Daughter of Autolycus [1], wife of Aeson [1], mother of Jason (Iason [1]) (Hes. fr. 38 M.-W.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Lover of Hermes Daughter of king Phylas [1] of Ephyra, lover of Hermes, mother by him of Eudorus [1], thereafter wife of Echecles, the son of Actor (Hom. Il. 16,179-190). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) [German version] [3] Wife of Peleus before Thetis Daughter of Actor, wife of Peleus before Thetis (schol. Lycoph. 175), according to Eust. ad Hom Il. 2,684 the mothe…

Rhoecus

(496 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt)
(Ῥοῖκος/ Rhoîkos). [German version] [1] One of the Centaurs One of the Centaurs. R. is killed together with his companion Hylaeus by Atalante for importuning her (Callim. H. 3,221 with schol.; Apollod. 3,106; Ael. VH 13,1). Possibly identical with the Centaur Rhoetus (Ov. Met. 12,271-301; variants Rhoetus/ Rhoecus e.g. Verg. G. 2,456; Luc. 6,390; Val. Fl. 1,141; 3,65). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) [German version] [2] Character in a Greek tale Cnidian, who has an oak which is threatening to topple propped up, thereby saving the life of the tree's nymph (Hamadryads), wh…

Zethus

(340 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Harmon, Roger (Basle)
(Ζῆθος/ Zêthos). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and Antiope (Pind. fr. 52k,44: Ζέαθος/ Zéathos). Son of Zeus and Antiope [1]. A parallel is sometimes drawn between Z. and his twin brother Amphion [1], and Castor and Polydeuces (Dioscuri) (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 124; Eur. HF 29). Together with Zeus, Epopeus is also considered to be their father (Asius fr. 1 EpGF). Exposed after birth, the twins are brought up by herdsmen (Exposure, myths and legends of). When Antiope manages to escape from her captivity by Dirc…

Prylis

(186 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] [1] Mythical seer from Lesbos (Πρύλις; Prýlis). Mythical seer from Lesbos, apostrophized in Lycoph. 219-223. P. is son of the nymph Issa and Hermes (called Kádmos/Cadmus, in the Boeotian variant of the name, in line 219) and through Hermes, great-grandson of Atlas [2]. Prompted by presents from Palamedes [1], P. reveals to the Greeks in an early stage how to capture Troy, advising them to build the wooden horse. He is referred to as one who "helped to destroy his own kindred" in line 222 because the Troja…

Sybaris

(605 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
(Σύβαρις; Sýbaris). [German version] [1] Monster on the mountain Cirphis near Crisa Monster on the mountain Cirphis near Crisa, also called Lamia (Lamia [1]). In order to keep the area free of S.' regular visitations, a youth called Alcyoneus was to be sacrificed. Out of love for him, however, Eurybatus spontaneously took his place. He managed to overcome S. and throw it from a rock. On the site of its fall the spring S. arises (Antoninus Liberalis 8, according to Nicander). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) [German version] [2] Name of a youth Name of a youth, possibly a river god, in a picture…

Piraeus

(1,363 words)

Author(s): von Eickstedt, Klaus-Valtin (Athens) | Johannsen, Nina (Kiel)
[German version] [1] Attic deme This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Attica | Attica | Education / Culture (Πειραιεύς/ Peiraieús, Latin Piraeus, modern Piraeus). [German version] I. Topography Large Attic deme of the phyle Hippothontis, main harbour of Athens on the west coast of Attica, c. 7 km from Athens. Its territory is a peninsula stretching c. 3 km into the Saronikos Kolpos, between the Aegaleos in the north and the Hymettus in the east. The west side of this peninsula encloses the 'large harbour', K…

Sphinx

(1,195 words)

Author(s): Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) | Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Σφίγξ/ Sphínx, also ἀνδροσφίγξ/ androsphínx: Hdt. 2,175; Boeotian: φίξ/ phíx; pl. Σφίγγες/ Sphínges). [German version] I. Egypt Depiction of the Egyptian king with the body of a lion and a human head Greek designation for the depictions which were originally only of the Egyptian king with the body of a lion and a human head; there is no known Egyptian designation for this type of image. Three-dimensional sculptural representations of recumbent sphinxes have been documented since the 4th Dynasty. (Djedefre, 2570-2450 BC). The great sphinx of Gizeh, worshipped…

Pythagoras

(2,937 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Et al.
(Πυθαγόρας/ Pythagóras). [German version] [1] Fictitious Spartan and adviser to Numa Pompilius Fictitious person, supposedly from Sparta, victor at the Olympic Games in 716 BC, emigrated to Italy where he became an adviser to king Numa Pompilius. It seems this person was constructed to establish a connection between P. [2] and Roman religion (Plut. Numa 1,2-3). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography F. Ollier, Pythagore de Sparta, REG 59/60, 1946/7, 139-149. [German version] [2] Philosopher, c. 600 BC Natural philosopher and charismatic teacher from the 6th and early 5th cent…