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Avitus

(544 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] [1] Flavius Eparchius A. West Roman emperor 9.7.455-17.10.456 West Roman emperor 9.7.455-17.10.456, born c. 400 in Clermont. He came from a family of senators from the Auvergne, came to have some influence over the king of the West Goths,  Theoderic I and, as praef. praetorio Galliarum in 439, he negotiated a peace treaty with the king and persuaded him to join sides in the war against the Huns in 451 (Sid. Apoll. Carm. 7,295-355). In 455, A. was appointed mag. militum praesentalis by the emperor Petronius  Maximus and after the latter's overthrow was himself…

Flavianus

(513 words)

Author(s): Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Praefectus praetorio AD 222 or 223 Praefectus praetorio with (Geminius) Chrestus in AD 222 or 223. When upon the insistence of Julia Mamaea, Domitius  Ulpianus was put in charge by Severus Alexander as praetorian prefect, the guard mutinied, so Ulpianus had F. and Chrestus killed (Cass. Dio 80,2,2; Zos. 1,11,2). PIR2 F 180. Fuhrer, Therese (Zürich) [German version] [2] Virius Nicomachus F. Pagan, aristorcrat in Rome; friend of Symmachus Dominant figure of the non-Christian aristocracy in Rome in the last quarter of the 4th cent. AD. He had a clo…

Honorius

(738 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] (Grand)father of emperor Theodosius I Listed in [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 48,1 as father of the emperor Theodosius I, but may have been his grandfather. PLRE 1,441. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Elder brother of Theodosius I Elder brother of Theodosius I, probably related to  Maria, whose daughter was  Serena; both were taken into the emperor's household. PLRE 1,441. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [3] Flavius H. West Roman emperor 393-423 AD, puer nobilissimus West Roman emperor AD 393-423, was born on 9 September AD 384 …

Ferreolus

(106 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Gallic aristocrat, grandson of the consul of 381 AD Afranius Syagrius, related by marriage through his wife Papianilla to  Sidonius Apollinaris (Sid. Apoll. Epist. 1,7,4; 7,12,1f.; Carm. 24,35-38). As praefectus praetorio Galliarum, he supported  Aetius [2] in 451 in the repulse of the Huns, protected Arelate from the Goths in 452/3, and granted tax concessions in Gaul (Sid. Apoll. Epist. 7,12,3). In 469, he came to Rome as an envoy of his homeland to raise charges against Arvandus, his successor in office (Sid. Apoll. Epist. 1,7,4; 9). Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibl…

Glycerius

(111 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] West Roman emperor from AD March 473 to June 474. In 472/3 he was comes domesticorum and was proclaimed Augustus in Ravenna at the behest of the supreme imperial general  Gundobad. He persuaded Ostrogoths who had invaded Italy to withdraw by giving them gifts. The East Roman emperor  Leo I did not recognize him and sent a fleet under  Iulius Nepos to whom G. submitted without battle. He became bishop of Salona and allegedly instigated the murder of Nepos in 480 (Iohannes Antiochenus Fr. 209,2 FHG IV 617f.; Iord. Get. 45,239; 241; 56,283f.; Anon. Valesianus 7,36). Johne, Klau…

Fidelis

(100 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] (Φιδέλιος; Phidélios) of Milan. Lawyer in Rome and in AD 527/8 quaestor palatii of the Ostrogoth king  Athalaricus (Cassiod. Var. 8,18f.). In 536, he was sent to  Belisarius on behalf of the citizens of Rome and pope Silverius, in order to hand over the city (Procop. Goth. 1,14,5). In 537/8, he served as praefectus praetorio for the Eastern Roman Empire. In 538, he fell into the hands of the Goths near Ticinum, who killed him as a traitor (Procop. Goth. 1,20,19f.; 2,12,27f.; 34f.). Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography PLRE 2, 469f. Stein, Spätröm. R. vol. 2, 348, 354.

Nomus

(131 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Comes et magister officiorum in the eastern Empire AD 443-446 (Nov. Theod. 24f.; Cod. Iust. 1,24,4; 12, 19, 7f.; 21, 6; 26, 2; BGU 12, 2141), consulin 445 together with Emperor Valentinianus III., and patricius 448-451 (Theod. Epist. 81; 96). N. was an influential advisor to Emperor Theodosius II. and a friend of the praepositus sacri cubiculi Chrysaphius; in 450 he was sent with the magister militum Anatolius [2] to the Hun King Attila to conclude a peace (Prisc. fragment 8; 13f. = FHG IV 91; 97f.; Iohannes Antiochenus fragment 198 = FHG IV 613…

Notitia Africae

(67 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] ( Notitia provinciarum et civitatum Africae). The NA is a list of 466 Catholic bishops from Africa up to the time of the Vandal King Hunericus/Hunerich in AD 484. Compiled at approximately the same time as the work of Victor of Vita. Notitia dignitatum Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography Edition: MGH AA 3, 1, 1878, 63-71  M. Petschenig, Victor Vitensis, in: CSEL 7, 1881, 115-134.

Parthenius

(1,172 words)

Author(s): Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Marek, Christian (Zürich) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] I Greek (Παρθένιος; Parthénios). [German version] [I 1] Prolific writer from Nicaea or Myrlea, 1st cent. BC 1st cent. BC; from Nicaea or Myrlea; according to the Suda (π 664 = T 1 Lightfoot), our only source of biographical information (based on Hermippus of Berytus), P. may have been born in Myrlea and then moved to Nicaea (cf. [5. 9] with literature). Prolific writer, author of poems in a variety of metres. Captured by Cinna during a campaign against Mithridates [6] in 73 BC, but freed ' because of his education', P. is believed to have lived until the time of Empe…

Arbogastes

(177 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Pagan Frank in Roman service, who served in AD 380 under the marshal  Bauto, perhaps his father, and was elevated to magister militum by the army between 385 and 387. On the order of  Theodosius I he defeated the usurper  Maximus in 388, then controlled the politics of the western empire under  Valentinianus II and defended the Rhine frontier against the Franks (Zos. 4,33,1 f.; 53,1 f.; Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,9). A. was the first German to properly rule parts of the Roman empire. After Valentinian's unres…

Isidorus

(2,455 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἰσίδωρος; Isídōros). [German version] [1] Pirate captain, defeated by Lucullus at Tenedus in 72 BC Pirate captain who organized the Cilician pirates in the area around Crete, was besieged in 78 BC by P. Servilius Isauricus (Flor. 1,41,3), later entered the service of Mithridates and in 72 was defeated by Lucullus in the naval battle of Tenedos at the entrance to the Dardanelles (App. Mithr. 77, Memnon 42,2 = FHG 3,548) and killed (Plut. Lucullus 12.2). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] I. of Charax Geographer, end of 1st cent. BC Geographer, certainly of the Augustan p…

Iovinus

(274 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Flavius I. 361 AD magister equitum of Iulianus [11] In AD 361 Magister Equitum of  Iulianus [11] (Amm. Marc. 21,8,3; 22,3,1), in 363 Mag. Mil. per Gallias (Amm. Marc. 25,8,11; 10,6-17; 26,5,1-3). I. continued to hold these offices under Valentinianus and Valens. In 366 victory over the Alamanni on the upper Mosel (Amm. Marc. 27,2). He was consul in 367, and remained active in Gaul and Britain until 369. He was a Christian and built the church of Saint Agricola in Reims (CIL XIII 3256). PLRE 1, 462f. (F.I. 6). Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) …

Vigilantia

(128 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Sister of the emperor Iustinianus [1] I, married to Dulcidius, mother of Praeiecta, of the magister militum and patricius Marcellus [7] and of the emperor Iustinus [4] II, who was born c. AD 510-515; she was still alive for his ascension to the throne in 565 and she had influence over him (Procop. Vand. 2,24,3; Victor Tonnunensis, Chron. Min. ed. Mommsen: MGH AA 2,206; Corippus, In laudem Iustini, praef. 21 f.; 1,8 f.; 2,283). Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography A. Cameron (ed.), Corippus, In laudem Iustini (with an English translation and commentary…

Litorius

(84 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Comes and alongside Aetius [2], influential magister militum in Gaul, fought from AD 435 with Hunnic troops primarily against the Visigoths. L. subjugated Aremorica, laid waste to the land of the Arvernians, liberated Narbo from the Gothic siege and in 439 was captured near Tolosa and killed by the Goths (Chron. min. 1,475f.; 2,23 Mommsen; Sid. Apoll. Carm. 7,246-50, 300-303; Salv. Gub. 7,10). Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography PLRE 2, 684f. A. Demandt, s.v. magister militum, RE Suppl. 12, 553-790, esp. 666f.

Florentius

(359 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Flavius F. Praefectus praetorio Galliarum AD 357-360 Was praefectus praetorio Galliarum from AD 357 to 360. At his instigation, Constantius [2] II had his auxiliary troops withdrawn from Gaul, which resulted in Julian's elevation (Julian. Ep. 282c; Amm. Marc. 20,4,2). In 360 Constantius appointed him praefectus praetorio Illyrici and in 361 honoured him with the consulate (Amm. Marc. 21,6,5). After Julian's victory he was sentenced to death in absentia by the Commission of Calchedon (Amm. Marc. 22,3,6). He is probably identical to the homonymous comes of Const…

Rufinus

(1,669 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Ῥουφῖνος/ Rhouphînos). [German version] [I 1] Epigrammatist Greek epigrammatist; dating uncertain (Neronian/Flavian era? [2; 4]; 2nd cent. AD? [3]; late 4th cent. AD? [1]); origin unknown (Anth. Pal. 5,9: residence in Ephesus). 37 erotic poems are extant, all in Anth. Pal. 5,2-103 (on this so-called Sylloge Rufiniana, perhaps also from the 4th cent. AD, cf. [5]). With the exception of the paederastic poem 28 (cf. also 19), R.' epigrams, in which 13 women's names are mentioned (two further fictitious ones in 44,1), tr…

Gabrielus

(53 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Praefectus urbis Constantinopolitanae in AD 543; while in office, he resumed charge of the capital's grain supply, which John the Cappadocian ( Iohannes [16]) had assigned to the praefectus praetorio Orientis (Lydus, Mag. 3,38; Nov. Iust. 125). Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography PLRE 3 A, 498 Stein, Spätröm. R., vol. 2, 441.

Gaudentius

(730 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam) | Et al.
(Γαυδέντιος; Gaudéntios). [German version] [1] G. Philosophus Musician and philosopher Author of an introduction to harmony, Ἁρμονικὴ εἰσαγωγή ( Harmonikḕ eisagōgḗ) ─ probably written in line with Claudius Ptolemy's ─ translated into Latin by Cassiodorus' friend Mutianus (Cassiod. Inst. 2,5,142 Mynors). The incompletely preserved work (in 23 chapters) contains traditional teachings in a slightly modified form, especially from Aristoxenus and the Pythagoreans: voice, sound, interval, modes, composition (1-7), unison…

Magnus

(1,025 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Et al.
Roman cognomen, which originally designated bodily size or birth order (‘the Elder’), as in the Republican period in the case of Sp. Postumius Albinus M. ( cos. 148 BC) and T. Roscius M. (Cic. Rosc. Am. 17) [1. 275; 3. 47]. As an assumption of the epithet of Alexander [4] ‘the Great’ (ὁ μέγας/ ho mégas, in the sense of great historical importance), first taken by Cn. Pompeius ( cos. 70 and 55) in the 1st cent. BC, then inherited by his sons Cn. and Sex. Pompeius and their descendants. Sex. Pompeius used M. also as a praenomen resp. nomen gentile [4. 364f.]. In the Imperial period, more frequen…

Agrippinus

(79 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Comes et magister utriusque militiae per Gallias in the years AD 451/52-456/457, then replaced by emperor  Maiorianus with  Aegidius and accused, deployed again by  Ricimer in 461 and sent to Gallia, where he gave over the city of Narbo 462 to the West Goths, in order to win them over against Aegidius (Chron. min. 2, 26, 33 Mommsen; MGH SS rer. Merov. 3,109; 149-152). PLRE 2, 37 f. Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography D. Henning, Periclitans res publica, 1999
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