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Daimon

(283 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[German Version] Greek δαίμων, may be etymologically related to δαίω “disperse” (i.e. the fateless?); originally “divine being, divine power” (= ϑεός, “god”) (Hom. Iliad 1.222 etc.), but already in Hes. Erga 121–126 it referred to the “soul of a deceased person.” The two concepts fuse in the image of daimons as punishing avengers (souls of the ¶ murdered execute vengeance as daimons). The concept of the “personal” daimon that influences the fate of the individual appeared from the 6th century bce (Theognis 161–164, Heraclitus 22 B 119 D.-K., Pindarus, Olympia 13.28, 105, Sophoc. Trachin…

Euripides

(423 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[German Version] (c. 485/484 bce, Salamis – 407/406, Pella). With Aeschylus and Sophocles, Euripides was the third great tragedian of classical Greece. Historically reliable information about his life is scanty. He was probably the son of a landowner and a mother from a distinguished family. In Athens he is said to have been a pupil of the Sophists Anaxagoras, Prodicus, and Protagoras, as well as being a friend of Socrates. He first appeared as a tragedian in 455 bce. He went on to produce 92 plays. In his old age, he finally left Athens for the co…

Hymn

(2,107 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz | Hossfeld, Frank-Lothar | Lattke, Michael | Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Term and Genre – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Liturgical Studies I. Term and Genre The Greek word ὕμνος/ hýmnos, whose etymology is obscure, originally meant, quite unspecifically, simply “song” (the verb ὑμνεῖν/ hymneín, “ to sing”; cf. Hes. Theog. 11.33; Hom. Hym. 3.178, etc.). Yet, from the ¶ 5th/4th century bce at the latest, it meant “song for a god” (cf. Plato, Leges 700 b 1–2; Xenophanes 21 B 1.13 DK; Xenophon, Cyrupaideia 18.1.23) and thence became the general term for “religious song,” and finally for “festival song,” “song o…

Eudaimonia,

(644 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[German Version] from Greek εὐδαιμονία, meaning “happiness, bliss” (Lat. beatitudo). Originally a religious concept ( eudaímōn, “having a good daimon,” “blessed by God”; cf. Euripides, Orestes 667), it was often used in the sense of having great material wealth, and only entered the vocabulary of philosophical ethics in the 6th/5th century bce. The pre-Socratics were the first to strip the term of its material connotations and used the concept of eudaimonía to describe a good inner disposition of the human soul (cf. Democritus in: Vorsokratiker 68 B 77, …

Conscience

(4,604 words)

Author(s): Hermsen, Edmund | Käppel, Lutz | Dautzenberg, Gerhard | Härle, Wilfried | Mokrosch, Reinhold
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Greco-Roman Antiquity – III. New Testament – IV. Dogmatics and Ethics – V. Practical Theology I. History of Religion The original meaning of the word, (divine) “joint knowledge, knowledge, consciousness, and self-consciousness” (Gk syneídēsis, Lat. conscientia), had already changed in antiquity to refer to an evaluative consciousness of one's own actions. Western philosophical and theological discourse formed various metaphors: the internal; the inner voiced ( daimónion; daimon), also interpreted as the voice …

Hesiod

(543 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[German Version] (c. 700 bce), the oldest Greek poet of whom there is authentic information concerning his person. His father, a merchant, was forced to leave the Aeolian city of Cyme and settled down in Boeotian Ascra (Hes. Erga kai hemerai [ Erga] 635–640). After his death, an inheritance dispute broke out between Hesiod and his brother Perses ( Erga 35–39). A first prize in a poetry contest in Chalcis is also documented ( Erga 650–659). Tradition attributes the following works to Hesiod's authorship: Theogonia ( Theogony), Erga kai hemerai ( Works and Days), and the Aspis ( Shield). Signi…

Chaeremon

(133 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[German Version] A Stoic philosopher and Egyptian priest of the 1st century ce, Chaeremon was probably a grammar teacher in Alexandria before becoming the tutor of the later emperor Nero in 49 ce. Chaeremon is the author of a grammatical essay on hieroglyphs ( Hieroglyphica), of an astrological treatise, and of a stoicizing work on Egyptian history ( Aigyptiakḗ historía). The latter was less a historical account than a mytholo¶ gizing description of the ancient Egyptian priesthood as the perfect embodiment of Stoic ideals. Lutz Käppel Bibliography Fragments: F. Jacoby, ed., Die Fragme…

Ezekiel the Tragedian

(263 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[German Version] was a Hellenistic Jew, presumably from Alexandria, who authored a Greek tragedy, Exagoge ( The Exodus, i.e. from Egypt) following Exod 1–15 (LXX) sometime after 240 bce but surely before 100 ce. The extant fragments (a total of 269 verses) represent the largest ¶ preserved portion of Greek tragedy after Euripides and, simultaneously, the largest preserved portion of Judeo-Hellenistic poetry. The following scenes have been preserved: 1. Moses reports about his fate to this poin…

Hubris

(901 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz | Krötke, Wolf
[German Version] I. Study and History of Religion – II. Philosophy of Religion I. Study and History of Religion Greek ὕβρις, “pride, infringement, maltreatment, outrage.” The etymology of hybris is obscure (the second syllable may be related to βριαρός/ briarós, “strong”). The popular etymological derivation from ὑπέρ/ hypér, “exceeding (the correct amount),” common since the time of Homer, may not be correct for phonetic reasons. Hubris is the basic mental attitude that causes people to “go too far” when pursuing their own interests, and …

Manto

(155 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μαντώ; Mantṓ). Daughter of Teiresias, from Thebes, like her father gifted as a seer, priestess of Apollo Ismenios (Eur. Phoen. 834ff.). When the Epigoni [2] conquer Thebes, M. is consecrated to Apollo at Delphi (Apollod. 3,85; Paus. 9,33,2; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,308). Diod. Sic. 4,66,5f. calls her Daphne [2], and describes her as an excellent poet, from whom even Homer took some verses. Later, M. participates in the founding of the colony of Colophon [1] in Asia Minor (with the or…

Hermocles

(155 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἑρμοκλῆς; Hermoklês). [German version] [1] From Cyzicus, poet of paeans (amongst other things), c. 300 BC From Cyzicus. Around 300 BC author of  paeans on  Antigonus I and  Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes [4] (lost) and an ithyphallos on the latter [1; 2] (fully extant). Addressing traditional religious poetry no longer only to gods but also to rulers was in keeping with the general common practice of the Hellenistic ruler cult [3]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography Editions: 1 CollAlex 173-175 2 D. Ebener, Griech. Lyrik, 21980, 426 (Ger. trans.). Bibliography: 3 C. Habicht, Gottmensc…

Mentes

(71 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μέντης; Méntēs). [German version] [1] Ciconian leader in the Trojan War Mythical commander of the Cicones in the Trojan War. Apollo assumes his guise to spur Hector on to battle (Hom. Il. 17,13). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Prince of the Taphians in the Trojan War Mythical Prince of the Taphiae. Athena assumes his guise to appear to Telemachus (Hom. Od. 1,105; 1,180; Mentor [2]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Peisidice

(103 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πεισιδίκη; Peisidíkē). [German version] [1] Name of various mythical figures Name of various mythical figures: daughter of Aeolus [1], wife of Myrmidon (Apollod. 1,51f.), daughter of Nestor [1] ( ibid. 1,94), daughter of Pelias ( ibid. 1,95; Hyg. Fab. 24). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Daughter of King Lepethymnus of Methymna Daughter of King Lepethymnus of Methymna; love prompted her to betray her home city to its besieger, Achilles [1], but she was stoned to death for this on his orders (Parthenius 21). The same story is also told o…

Oeonus

(75 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Οἰωνός; Oiōnós). Son of Licymnius [1], from Midea in the Argolid, companion of Heracles [1], first winner of a race in the Olympic games (Pind. Ol. 10,64ff. with schol.); he was slain in Sparta by the sons of Hippocoon because he had killed their dog; a grave of O. was shown there (Apollod. 2,143f.; Paus. 3,15,3ff.). O.' death is considered the reason for Heracles' fight against the Hippocoontids. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Salmoneus

(238 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Σαλμωνεύς/ Salmōneús). Son of Aeolus [1], brother of Athamas, Sisyphus and Cretheus. S. had delusions of grandeur and endeavoured to have himself worshipped as Zeus, driving around on a chariot drawn by horses, producing artificial lightning flashes and making bronzen cauldrons resound to give the impression of thunder. Zeus flung him into Tartarus. S.' daughter Tyro distanced herself from her father, was spared and married Cretheus (Hes. fr. 10a, 25-27 M.-W.; fr. 30,1-30 M.-W.; A…

Phoroneus

(109 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φορωνεύς; Phorōneús). Son of Alpheius [2], ancestor of the Pelasgian race (in contrast to the more recent Hellenic race, whose ancestor is Deucalion) and hence the 'first man' (Akusilaos FGrH 2 F 23a; Hes. fr. 122 M.-W.; Hellanikos FGrH 4 F 1; Hyg. Fab. 143 and 274) [1. 84]. Like Prometheus he was the inventor of fire (Paus. 2,19,5), bringer of culture, and judge in the dispute over Argos between Poseidon and Athena (Paus. 2,15,5). He is the subject of the epic Phorōnís ( c. 600 BC) [2; 3; 4]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 Preller/Robert 2 PEG I, 118-121 3 EpGF, 153-155 4…

Phalantus

(123 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φάλανθος/ Phálanthos; Lat. Phalant[h]us). Mythological founder of Taranto (Taras; Antiochus of Syracuse FGrH 555 F 13; Ephorus FGrH 70 F 216; Paus. 10,10,6-8 and elsewhere). According to Antiochus l.c., P. founded Taranto as a result of the instruction by the oracle of Delphi after an uprising by the Parthenians, led by him, against Sparta during the first Messenian War had failed; according to Ephorus l.c., the Spartans persuaded the Parthenians to emigrate. However, according to Paus. l.c., Taranto already existed. Apart from that, Paus. 10,13,3 report…

Oebalus

(107 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Οἴβαλος/ Oíbalos, Latin Oebalus). [German version] [1] Spartan king Mythical king of Sparta, son of Cynortas or his son Perieres, husband of Perseus's daughter Gorgophone; she, or the Naiad Batea, is the mother of their children Tyndareos,  Hippocoon and Icarius [1] (various versions in Apollod. 3,116f.; Paus. 3,1,3ff.; schol. Eur. Or. 457 et al.) [1]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Italic hero Italic hero, son of king Telon of the Teleboae and the nymph Sebethis; mythical ruler of Capreae; ally of Turnus against Aeneas [1] (Verg. Aen. 7,733ff. w…

Pierus

(146 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πίερος; Píeros). [German version] [1] Eponym of the Macedonian region Pieria Eponym of the Macedonian region Pieria (Pierides), son of Macedon [1] (Schol. Hom. Il. 14,226). His association with the Muses is evident from alternative genealogies: son of Linus (Suda s.v. Ὅμηρος; Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi 47), father of Oeagrus and Calliope [1] (l.c.; Paus. 9,30,4; Suda l.c.). The first to write poetry to the Muses (Plut. De musica 3), he introduced the cult of the nine Muses to Thespiae (Thespia) (Paus. 9,2…

Miletus

(3,516 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | von Graeve, Volkmar (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Μίλητος; Mílētos). [German version] [1] Mythical founder of the city of Miletus Mythical founder of the city of M. [2]; from Crete; son of Apollo and Areia, daughter of Cleochus whose tomb was in the sanctuary of Didyma [1. 165f.] (Apollod. 3,5f.), or of Apollo and Deione (Ov. Met. 9,443ff.) or of Apollo and Acacallis, daughter of Minos (Antoninus Liberalis 30). Minos fell in love with M., but M. fleed to Caria, establishds M. there [2] and married Eidothea; the children of their union are Byblis and Caunus [1]. According to Ephorus FGrH 70 F 127 M. was founded by Sarpedon. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bi…
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