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Ne(i)leus

(207 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] [1] Founder of Miletos (Νειλεύς/ Neileús; Νηλεύς/ Nēleús; Νείλεως/ Neíleōs). Mythical founder of the city of Miletus [2]; from Pylos; son of the Attic king Codrus, brother of Medon [5]; since he is second to his brother in the succession, he leaves Attica with a group of Athenians und Ionians from Pylos, settles the Ionian cities in Asia Minor, founds Miletus and the Milesian dynasty of rulers. His son Aepytus founds Priene (Hellanicus FGrH 125 F 10; Hdt. 9,97; Callim. Iambi fr. 191,76; Str. 14,1,3; Paus. 7,2,1ff). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Greek surgeon a…

Nomia

(131 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
(Νομία/ Nomía). [German version] [1] Nymph, with the same name as the Arcadian mountain range Nymph; eponym of the mountain range in Arcadia, N. [3] (Paus. 8,38,11). Depicted by Polygnotus in Delphi, together with Callisto and Pero (Paus. 10,31,10). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Sicilian nymph Sicilian nymph, who transforms Daphnis [1] into a stone, when he spurns her (Ov. Met. 4,277; Serv. Verg. Ecl. 8,68). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Mountain range in the south-western Peloponnese A 1389 m high mountain range in the south-western Peloponnese, to t…

Macris

(53 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μάκρις; Mákris). Daughter of Aristaeus [1], wet-nurse of Dionysus on Euboea. After she was banished by Hera she lived on Corcyra, which was named M. after her, in a grotto which was later the place where Iason and Medea got married (Apoll. Rhod. 4,540; 990; 1130ff.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Thaletas

(134 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Θαλήτας/ Thalḗtas; in some authors wrongly Thales, e.g. Paus. 1,14,4; Plut. Lycurgus 4), choral lyricist of the 7th cent. BC, from Gortyn (in Crete). Besides Xenodamus of Cythera, Xenocritus [1] of Locri and others, he was involved in various musical innovations in Sparta in the generation after Terpander (Plut. De musica 9,1134b-c). Like these, he composed paeans (Plut. loc.cit.) and hyporchḗmata (Schol. Pind. Pyth. 2,127). According to later authors of musical theory, he introduced paeonic and cretic rhythms to Sparta…

Modius

(595 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
Roman surname. [German version] [1] M., Q. Horse breeder Cited by Varro (Rust. 2,7,1) as a distinguished horse breeder. His (probably invented) cognomen Equicolus, which indicates this activity, may have been interpreted by Varro as Aequicolus, so that a later period reveals a Septimus M. as the first king of the Aequiculi (Lib. de praenominibus 1). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] M. Fabidius Founder of the city of Cures Son of a virgin of the Aborigines who comes to dance in the sanctuary of Quirinus in the territory of Reate, but is then seized…

Myscelus

(82 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μύσκελ[λ]ος/ Mýskel(l)os). Mythical founder of Croton. Son of Alemon of Rhypes in Achaea. According to Ov. Met. 15, 12-59, his foundation of Croton was connected with Heracles [1] (according to others, with the Delphic Apollo): after his home town indicted Myscelus because of his illegal plan to found a city, Heracles turned the black voting stones white at the ballot, thus enabling the foundation (variants in [1. 254f.]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 F. Bömer, P. Ovidius Naso, Metamorphosen, vols. 14-15, 1986.

Phocus

(169 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Φῶκος; Phôkos). [German version] [1] Mythical hero of Aegina Mythical hero of Aegina, son of Aeacus and the Nereid Psamathe; the latter had attempted in vain to stop Aeacus from raping her by turning herself into a seal ( phṓkē): hence the name P. for the child of this union (Hes. Theog. 1004f., Apollod. 3,158 and 160; Pind. Nem. 5,12). In Phocis P. marries the princess Asterodia and gives his name to this region (Apollod. 1,86). P. is ultimately killed by his step-brothers Peleus and Telamon, and he is buried in Aegina (Paus. 2,29,…

Phaeaces

(445 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φαίακες/ Phaíakes, Latin Phaeaces, the Phaeacians). Mythical seafaring people, ruled by King Alcinous [1] (together with 12 other 'kings') and his wife Arete [1]. The P. live on the island of Scheria, to which they were led by Nausithous [1] from Hyperea (Hom. Od. 6,5; 7,58). There are comprehensive accounts of the P. in Hom. Od. books 6-8 and 13. The P. receive Odysseus as their guest after the king's daughter Nausicaa discovers him shipwrecked on the beach. They entertain him lavi…

Nysus

(44 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Νύσος/ Nýsos). Male counterpart of Nysa [1]. He is the tutor of Dionysus. He exercises power in Thebes during the latter's campaign to India, but it is seized back again on his return (Hyg. Fab. 131, 167, 179). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Phylacus

(188 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Φύλακος; Phýlakos). [German version] [1] Mythical founder and eponym of Phylacia Mythical founder and eponym of Phylacia (in Attica), also of Phylace [1]. Son of Deïon(eus) [1] and Diomede, the daughter of Xuthus (Apollod. 1,51; 86), father of Iphiclus (Hom. Il. 2,705; 13,698) and Alcimede (Apoll. Rhod. 1,47). P. caused the infertility of his son by threatening him with a knife bloody from castrating rams. After Melampus [1] heals Iphiclus in the course of his brother Bias [1]'s battle for Iphiclus's oxen…

Lucretia

(223 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] [1] Wife of Numa Pompilius Wife of Numa Pompilius, mother of Pompilia, grandmother of Ancus Marcius [I 3] (Plut. Numa 21,2). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Wife of Collatinus Wife of Collatinus. Raped by the Roman prince Sex. Tarquinius, she commits her husband with L. Iunius [I 4] Brutus and P. Valerius to revenge and kills herself. This incident initiates the expulsion of the Tarquinians from Rome and with it the fall of rule by kings (Liv. 1,57-60 [1]; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,64,4-67,4; Ov. Fast.…

Maneros

(102 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μανερῶς; Manerôs Hdt. 2,79; Μανέρως; Manérōs Plut. Is. 17,367 etc.). According to Hdt. l.c. M. is the only son of the first king of Egypt who, after his early death, is honoured by a dirge ‘M., which is said to correspond to the Greek Linus song. M. means either Egyptian mniw-r‘gooseherd (Cerny) or r jmntt r jmntt‘westward! westward! (Lloyd), a cry heard at funerals. It is not clear which Egyptian name or which sequence of Egyptian words was garbled to form Greek M. [1. 338]. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 A. B. Lloyd, Herodotus, Book 2. Commentary 1-98, 1976.

Pleisthenes

(204 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πλεισθένης; Pleisthénēs). [German version] [1] Son of Pelops or Atreus, father of Agamemnon and Menelaus Mythical figure from the family of Pelops, often also named as the family's eponym (Aesch. Ag. 1569 etc.): either the son of Pelops and Hippodameia [1] (with Atreus, Thyestes and Pittheus as brothers; schol. Pind. O. 1,144), or the son of Atreus and Cleola born in exile in Macestus (Triphylia), father of Agamemnon and Menelaus [1] (schol. Eur. Or. 4), or husband of Aërope and father by her of Agamemnon and…

Philyra

(206 words)

Author(s): Bremmer, Jan N. (Groningen) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Φιλύρα/Philýra, literally 'lime-tree'). [German version] [1] Oceanid Oceanid, already in Hesiod (Theog. 1002) the mother of the centaur Chiron, in whose cave she lived according to Pindar (N. 3,43). The Hesiodic, Aeolic spelling Phillyrídēs for Chiron points to an archaic stratum of the myth (West on Hes. Theog. 1002). She was loved by Kronos who, being surprised by Rhea while making love to her, turned himself and P. into horses. Their child was the centaur Chiron, whose monstrous shape so horrified the mother that she prayed…

Ogygia

(183 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὠγυγία/ Ōgygía, epic -η/ ē). Mythical island on which the goddess Calypso lives (Hom. Od. 1,49ff.; 5,13ff.) and on which Odysseus stayed for almost ten years. In the 'Odyssey', O. is situated in the west (cf. Hom. Od. 5,271ff.) - as omphalòs thalássēs ('navel of the sea', cf. on this aspect [1. 2070ff.]). Since antiquity the geographical position has been a contentious issue: (1) near Crete (Antimachus fr. 142 Wyss); (2) in or near Italy: (a) Gozo (Callim. fr. 470), (b) Lacinium (Scylax 13 GGM), (c) Nymphaea (Apoll. Rhod…

Rhea, Rheia

(196 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ῥέα/ Rhéa, Ῥέη/ Rhéē, Ῥεία/ Rheía, Ῥείη/ Rheíē). Greek goddess; daughter of Uranus and Gaia, sister and consort of her brother Kronos, and by him the mother of Zeus, Hera, Demeter, Hades, Poseidon and Hestia (Hes. Theog. 453-463). Kronos devours the children in order to avoid the danger of being deprived of his power by one of them. However R. hides Zeus in Crete and instead gives Kronos a stone wrapped in swaddling bands. When Zeus is grown up he frees his brothers and sisters and with…

Peirithous

(396 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Πειρίθοος, -θους/ Peiríthoos, - thous; Περίθοος, -θους/ Períthoos, - thous; Latin Pirithous, Perithous etc.). Thessalian, later also Attic hero, king of the Lapithae, son of Zeus (Hom. Il. 2,741; 14,317f.; cf. Hom. Od. 11,631; Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 134; Pl. Resp. 391c-d) or Ixion (Ephorus FGrH 70 F 23; Diod. Sic. 4,63,1; 4,69,3; Ov. Met. 8,403f., 567, 613; 12,210, 338; Apollod. 1,68) and Dia [3], brother of Clymene [6], husband of Hippodamia [2], father of Polypoetes [1] (Hom. Il. 2,740-742; 1…

Nemea

(1,080 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne)
(Νεμέα; Neméa). [German version] [1] Nymph after whom Nemea [2,3] was named Nymph, after whom N. [2,3] was named, daughter of the river god Asopus and Metope (Paus. 2,15,3; schol. Pind. Ol. 6,144 Dr.) or of Zeus and Selene (hypothesis c on Pind. Nem.); mother of Opheltes (Aesch. TrGF 3 F *149a). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Name of a river, a basin and a sacred grove This item can be found on the following maps: Athletes | Education / Culture (Νεμέα; etymological meaning ‘pasture’; other etymology possibly after a nymph N. in Paus. 2,15,3). Name of: 1) a river whi…

Milye

(45 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μιλύη; Milýē). Daughter of Zeus, sister and wife of Solymus, eponym of the Lycian people of the Solymi, who were called Milyae after M. (Hdt. 1,173; 3,90; 7,77); later wife of Cragus, after whom Mount Cragus was named. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Nysa

(1,207 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Sigel, Dorothea (Tübingen) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Νῦσα/ Nûsa). [German version] [1] Wet nurse of Dionysus Wet nurse of Dionysus (Terpander in Lydus, Mens. 4,51) with cult in Athens (IG III 320, 351). Hom. Il. 6,132f. already knew of companions of N. Three Nysai meet on a vase by Sophilus (about 580). They appear in the sky as a group of stars called Hyades. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography T. Ganschow, s.v. Nysa, LIMC 8.1, 902-907; 8.2, 598f. [German version] [2] In Homer, the toponym N. refers to a mythical place In Homer, the toponym N. refers to the mythical place (mountain) where Dionysus was born or spent his childhood (Νυσήϊον/ Nysḗïon, …
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