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Obadiah/Book of Obadiah

(1,347 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias
[German Version] I. Place in the Canon – II. Structure – III. Growth – IV. Date – V. Name I. Place in the Canon The book of Obadiah (Gk Abdias) is part of the Book of the Twelve (Prophetic books); in the Hebrew canon ¶ it follows Amos, in the Greek, Joel (cf. Lives of the Prophets). It shares motifs and catchwords with both. II. Structure Obadiah uses Edom to exemplify the relationship of Israel to the nations. The linkage of two levels of communication (Wehrle) in vv. 1 and 15 divides the book into two parts. After the superscription, v. 1 links two speech ev…

Nahum/Nahumbuch

(1,346 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias
[English Version] I. Stellung im KanonNah steht im Zwölfprophetenbuch (Prophetenbücher) an siebter Stelle. Im hebr. Kanon geht ihm Mi, im griech. (wohl wegen Ninive) Jon voraus. Die Abfolge im MT wird von den in Mi 7,8–20 auf Nah 1 hin geschaffenen Stichwortbezügen (Nogalski) verstärkt. Mit Hab verbindet Nah nicht nur die Art der Überschrift, sondern auch die in Hab 1 redaktionell gebildeten Verknüpfungen mit Nah 3. Beide Bücher waren vielleicht einmal zu einer Zweiprophetenschrift zusammengestellt,…

Obadja/Obadjabuch

(1,107 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias
[English Version] I. Ort im KanonDas Buch Ob, griech. Abdias, befindet sich in der Zwölfprophetensammlung (Prophetenbücher) im hebr. Kanon nach Am, im griech. nach Jo (vgl. Vitae Prophetarum). Motive und Stichwörter verbinden mit beiden Büchern. II. AufbauOb reflektiert das Verhältnis Israels zu den Völkern exemplarisch an Edom. Die Verknotung zweier Kommunikationsebenen (Wehrle) in V.1 und V.15 gliedern das Buch in zwei Teile. Nach der Buchüberschrift verknüpft V.1 zwei Redevorgänge miteinander. Zunächst leitet V.1b eine Gottes…

Patriarchs/Patriarchal Tradition

(768 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias
[German Version] The Old Testament has no term equivalent to patriarch for Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. The earliest reference to the three as “patriarchs” is 4 Macc. 7:19 (cf. Heb 7:4 for Abraham, Acts 7:8f. for the 12 sons of Jacob, and 2:29 for David [NRSV: ancestor]). Even later the Talmud refers to Sarah, Rebekah, Rachel, and Leah as “matriarchs” ( b. Ber. 16b). But the notion of the people’s origin through its ancestors was quite familiar to the OT as well as the genealogical thought of the ancient Near East in general. Although the patriarchal trio ap…

Ascalon

(288 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Hasmonaeans | Hellenistic states | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Aegean Koine | Egypt Arabic casqalan, to the west of modern derech ha-nizachon, situated 16 km north of Gaza on the Mediterranean and on the via maris, was an important port and trade city connecting Egypt with Canaan/Syria and via Byblus with Mesopotamia. In the 2nd millennium A. was under Egyptian influence. In the 1st millennium A. belonged continuously to the Pentapolis of the Philistines (1 S…

Ahab

(233 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias (Berlin)
[German version] In Hebrew aḥāb = ‘brother of the father’ (substitute name), Ἄρχ(ι)αβος ( Árch(i)abos) according to Josephus (Ant. 8,13, 1-2), Achab in the Vulgate. As one of the most active rulers, A. governed the northern kingdom of Israel from the capital city of Samaria, which was founded by his father and predecessor Omri, from c. 871-852 BC. In addition to the Bible, the monolith inscription of Salmanassar III (col. II 90-102) and the Mes̆a Stele, l. 5, 8 (no name given here) provide documentary evidence of A. Biblical reports in 1 Kg 16,28-…

Asphaltitis limne

(256 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias (Berlin)
[German version] ‘Asphalt Lake’ is the name of the 1000 km2 rift valley lake, which does not drain away and in its northern part is approximately 400 m below sea level, into which the Jordan flows, mentioned in Diodorus (2.48.6ff.; 19. 98f.), Josephus (BI 4.436-482) and Plinius (HN 5.72). Tectonic movements had caused the pure bitumen (oxydized petroleum) lying in great quantities at the bottom of the Asphaltitis limne to rise to the surface, where it was gathered in lumps (Str. 16.42f.; Jos. BI 4.8.4; Nabataeans' asphalt trade[1]). The older biblical names ‘Se…

Chorat

(107 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias (Berlin)
[German version] Name of a stream east of the Jordan; not located (forms: Hebr. kerît; LXX Χορράθ ( Chorráth); Vulg. Carith; Eus. On. 174,16 Χορρά ( Chorrá); Jer. On. 175,16 Ch.; Peregrinatio Aetheriae, CSEL 39, 58f. Corra). Abel [vol. 1, 1. 484f.], Glueck [2] i.a. [3], arguing on the basis of the prophet Elias' having hidden there (1 Kg 17,3,5), identify C. with the Wadi el-Jubis in northern Gilead, which joins the Jordan to the south of Pella. Köckert, Matthias (Berlin) Bibliography 1 F.-M. Abel, Géographie de la Palestine 2 vols., 1933-38 2 N. Glueck, AASO 25-28, 1951, 219 3 J. Döller…

Beth­el

(813 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias (Berlin)
(Hebrew bēt-ēl ‘House of El’). [German version] [1] Place in the Ephraim range of mountains This item can be found on the following maps: Hasmonaeans Place in the Ephraim range of mountains, original name Lūz (Gen. 28,19; 35,6; 48,3; Jos. 18,3; Judg. 1,23) and identified with today's bētīn; 17 km north of Jerusalem (cf. Eus. On. 40,20f.) at the intersection of the roads from Hebron to Sichem and from Jericho to the Mediterranean; linked with an important sanctuary that, to distinguish it from the city with the earlier …

Bersabe

(240 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias (Berlin)
[German version] (Βηρσαβεέ; Bērsabeé). In the northern Negev, identified either with bir as-saba (now Beer Ševa) or with tall as-sab (5 km east). In the biblical tradition, B. appears as an open-air sanctuary of Yahwe with the name of El-Olam and is associated with the three arch fathers. However, it has some grounding only in the Isaac tradition, if that. Its meaning in popular etymology is ‘well of the oath’ (Gen. 21,22-27, 31b; 26,25-33), or ‘seven wells’ (Gen. 21,28-31a). In the set phrase ‘from Dan to Be…

Dora

(331 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Theatre | Hasmonaeans | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pompeius (Hebrew dōr). Port town identified with Ḫirbat al-Burǧ near the village aṭ-Ṭanṭūra 15 km north of Caesarea (Eus. Onom. 9,78; 16,136) and 21 km south of Haifa. Settlement since the Middle Bronze Age IIA was demonstrated in excavations from 1980-1991. D. was attested in the city lists of Ramses II (region of the via maris between Saron and Akko). In the travel report of Wen Amun (about 1100 BC), however, D. appeared in the possession of the Tkl, who were one of the S…

Karnaim

(237 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias (Berlin)
[German version] (Qarnaim). The place referred to in Am 6:13 as qarnayim, in the LXX and in Jos as καρναιν, καρνιον or καρναια, in Jerome as carnae/eas, is identified with Šaiḫ Saʿd, 4 km in northeastern direction from Aštarot (Gn 14:5 draws both places together as Aštarot-K.) east of the Jordan [1]. The Israelite king Jerobeom II is said to have conquered K. in his wars just before 760 BC, if Am 6:13 is not in fact a play of words ( Lobedar = ‘nothing’, Qarnaim = ‘horns’ as a symbol of strength) [2]. After the fall of Damascus in 732 BC, K. became the capital of the Assyrian pr…

Dan

(440 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias (Berlin)
(Hebr. Dān, Greek Δάν; Dán, in Ios. Δάνα, Δάνος; Dána, Dános). [German version] [1] Son of Jacob Son of Jacob and eponym of an Israelite tribe (Gen. 30,1-6), which eventually settled near the city of Laish/Leshem, which was then renamed after the tribe (Judg. 18,2-9; Jos. 19,40-48). Köckert, Matthias (Berlin) [German version] [2] City at the foot of Mt Hermon City at the foot of Mt Hermon, 20 km north of Lake Hule, identified with Tall al-Qāḍı̄ at the central source of the Jordan on the basis of a Greek-Aramaic bilingual inscription (3rd/2nd cents. BC) a…

Dan

(359 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias (Berlin)
(hebr. Dān, griech. Δάν, bei Ios. Δάνα, Δάνος). [English version] [1] Sohn Jakobs Sohn Jakobs und Eponym eines israelitischen Stammes (Gn 30,1-6), der sein endgültiges Siedlungsgebiet bei der Stadt Lajisch/Leschem fand, die nach ihm umbenannt wurde (Ri 18,2-9; Ios 19,40-48). Köckert, Matthias (Berlin) [English version] [2] Stadt am Fuße des Hermon Stadt am Fuße des Hermon, 20 km nördl. des Hule-Sees, aufgrund einer griech.-aram. Bilingue (3./2. Jh.v.Chr.), der Kontinuität des Namens und der Angaben (Eus. On. 76,6-8; Ios. ant. 5,178; 8,226) mit T…

Ai

(173 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias (Berlin)
[German version] The location identified with ḫirbet at-tell, 3 km south-east of Bētin (Gn 12,8; Jos 7,2), appears primarily in the Bible with the name hay, (determinate appellative) meaning ‘desolate place’ (Jos 8,28; Arabic at-tell). Archaeological findings corroborate this. The early Bronze Age city was fortified by three colossal ring walls and was c. 10 hectares in size. It also had an acropolis with a large spacious temple. It was completely destroyed in the middle of the 3rd millennium and abandoned by its inhabitants. Not until 1200 BC wa…

Hadad

(533 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias (Berlin)
[German version] (the name should perhaps be regarded as etymologically related to Arabic hadda ‘break, hit’, haddat, ‘thunder’). Evidence: Jos. Ant. Iud. 9,93 (Ἄδαδος); Phil. Bybl. FGH 3, 569, 24 (Ἄδωδος); Plin. HN 37,186 ( Adadu); Macr. Sat. 1,23,17 ( Adad). Western Semitic name of the  weather god venerated in cult worship as Adad in Akkadian, as Tarhu(a)n(t) in cuneiform Luwian and Hittite, from the middle of the 3rd millennium in numerous local formulations (especially as Ḫadda of Ḫalab/Aleppo [1]). Iconographically he appears a…

El

(1,099 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias (Berlin)
[German version] (Ugaritic il, Hebrew ēl, Akkadian ilu). Common Semitic appellation for ‘god’ (except in Ethiopian) and also the nomen proprium of a deity attested in Mesopotamia since the 3rd millennium BC that apparently belonged to the original Semitic pantheon. Of several etymological hypotheses, the derivation from the root wl, ‘be in front, the first, strong,’ deserves consideration. While il in Old Akkadian and Amoritic, but also in the texts of  Ebla (3rd millennium) only appears in theophoric personal names, Ugaritic texts (2nd half of the 2…

Ai.

(156 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias (Berlin)
[English version] Die mit ḫirbet at-tell, 3 km südöstl. von Bētin (Gn 12,8; Jos 7,2), zu identifizierende Ortslage erscheint in der Bibel allermeist mit der Bezeichnung hay (determiniertes Appellativ) = “die Trümmerstätte” (Jos 8,28; arab. at-tell). Dem entspricht der arch. Befund. Die früh-brz., mit drei gewaltigen Ringmauern bewehrte Stadt war ca. 10 ha groß und besaß eine Akropolis mit großem Breitraumtempel. Sie wurde in der Mitte des 3. Jt. völlig zerstört und von den Bewohnern aufgegeben. Erst um 1200 v. Chr. kam es zu ein…

Hadad

(501 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias (Berlin)
[English version] (der Name ist etym. vielleicht mit arab. hadda “brechen, schlagen”, haddat, “Donner”, zu verbinden). Belegstellen: Ios. ant. Iud. 9,93 (Ἄδαδος); Phil. Bybl. FGH 3, 569, 24 (Ἄδωδος); Plin. nat. 37,186 ( Adadu); Macr. Sat. 1,23,17 ( Adad). Westsemit. Name des Wettergottes, der akkad. als Adad, keilschriftlich-luw. und hethit. als Tarhu(a)n(t) seit der Mitte des 3.Jt. in zahlreichen lokalen Ausprägungen (bes. als Ḫadda von Ḫalab/Aleppo [1]) kult. Verehrung genoß. Ikonographisch erscheint er als Stier oder in Verbindu…

Ahab

(208 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias (Berlin)
[English version] Hebr. aḥāb = “Bruder des Vaters” (Ersatzname), Ἄρχ(ι)αβος bei Josephus (Ant. 8,13,1-2), Achab in der Vulgata, regierte in der von seinem Vater und Vorgänger Omri gegründeten Hauptstadt Samaria ca. 871-852 v. Chr. das Nordreich Israel als einer der tatkräftigsten Herrscher. Außerhalb der Bibel ist A. in der Monolith-Inschr. Salmanassars III. (Kol. II 90-102) und in der Mes̆a-Stele, Z. 5, 8 (hier namenlos), bezeugt. Die biblischen Nachrichten in 1 Kg 16,28 - 22,40 zeichnen A. als…
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