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Phanae

(168 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
(Φάναι; Phánai). [German version] [1] Southern tip of the island of Chios The c. 300 m high southern tip of the island of Chios (Thuc. 8,24,3; Str. 14,1,35; Steph. Byz. s.v. Φ.; Liv. 44,28,7; Ptol. 5,2,19), modern Akron Masticho. Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) [German version] [2] Port on the southwestern coast of Chios Port on the southwestern coast of Chios about 10 km from P. [1] (Str. 14,1,35), modern Káto Phana. Area famous for viticulture (Verg. G. 2,98 and Serv. Georg. z.St.); palm grove (Str. l.c.). In the bay of P. great fleets were harboured…

Syme

(152 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σύμη/ Sýmē). Island (58 km2, up to 617 m elevation, barren limestone) with many bays, surrounded by islets, off the Carian coast, 24 km to the north of Rhodes (Hom. Il. 2,671 ff.; Hdt. 1,174; Str. 14,2,14; Diod. Sic. 5,53; Ptol. 5,2,32; Plin. HN 5,133), today again called S. Few traces of prehistoric and Mycenaean settlement, settled by Cares and in c. 1000 BC by Dorieis. The polis of S. was at modern S. on the Bay of Aegialus in the northeast (remains of city wall and harbour, Athena sanctuary). From 434/3 BC on, S. was a member of t…

Nisyrus

(274 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Νίσυρος/ Nísyros). Island west of Cnidus, belonging to the Dodecanese. Around 35 km2 and pentagonal in shape, between Cos, Telos and the western tip of the Reşadiye peninsula. Volcanic rocks, hot springs (Str. 10,5,16); the collapsed main crater is 692 m high. N. was dedicated to Poseidon. The settlements of Argus (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἄργος/Á rgos), Gigantea and Hypaton (Γιγαντεα/ Gigantea and Υπατον/ Hypaton, IG XII 3,92,2f.), attested in literary sources, cannot be located archaeologically, but the eponymous main settlement of N. has been f…

Oene

(152 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (Οἴνη/ Oínē, ethnikon Οἰναῖος/ Oinaîos; in literature also Οἰνόη/ Oinóē, Ath 1,30d; Steph. Byz. s.v. Οἰνόη, Str. 14,1,9). Main town on the island of Icarus [2], on its north coast, 2 km west of modern Evdilos. Cult site of Dionysus and Artemis Tauropolis (chief cult). Numerous inscriptions [1]. O. was a member of the Delian League, paying a tribute of between 4000 and 8000 drachmai (ATL 1, 360f.; 528; 2, 86f.; 3, 190; …

Poeeessa

(152 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Ποιήεσσα/ Poiḗessa, Ποιᾶσσα/ Poiâssa, Ποιῆσσα/ Poiêssa). City in the southwest of Ceos [1] at modern Pisses. An acropolis and remains of walls lie on a steep cape. In the area early Cycladic pottery  (3rd millennium BC) has been found. Few remains survive (foundations, columns). Temples to Apollo Smintheus and  Athena Nedousia are recorded in Str. 10,5,6. To the northeast of P. a mighty Hellenistic watchtower has been found. In the Hellenistic Period P. was incorporated into the polis…

Sciathos

(174 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σκίαθος/ Skíathos). Westernmost of the northern Sporades (45 km2, length 11 km, maximum elevation 435 m; Hdt. 7,176,1; 179; 183,1 f.; 8,7,1; 92,1; Scyl. 58; Scymn. 580 ff.; Mela 2,106; Plin. HN 4,72; Ptol. 3,13,47), today also S. The island was settled in the 8th cent. BC by settlers from Chalcis [1]; Palaesciathos was laid out at that time (not located, recorded until the 5th/4th cent. BC). In the 6th/5th cents. BC, the polis of S. was founded on the east coast with a strategically imp…

Seriphos

(224 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σέριφος/ Sériphos). Island of the western Cyclades (11 km in diameter, 75 km2 in area, with Mount Turlos at 486 m elevation; marble, granite, gneiss) with numerous bays and three islets (modern Bous, Piperi and Seriphopoulo). S. had been settled by the 3rd millennium BC (early Cycladic idols) and the Iones took possession of it in the historical period (Hdt. 8,48). S. resisted Persian demands for tribute and in 480 BC took part on the Greek side in the battle of Salamis [1] (Hdt. 8,46; 48;…

Orobiae

(77 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Ὀρόβιαι/ Oróbiai). Coastal town north-west of Euboea, in antiquity always dependent on Histiaea, modern Rovies. Oracular centre of Apollo Selinountios. In 426 BC severely devastated by a violent earthquake and tsunami (Thuc. 3,89,2; Str. 9,2,13; 10,1,3; IG XII 9, 1186, 2; 1189,27 and 37). Natural catastrophes Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) Bibliography F. Geyer, Topographie und Geschichte der Insel Euboia, 1903, 95f.  J. Schmidt, s.v. O., RE 18, 1133f.  E. Freund, s.v. O., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 496.

Olympus

(2,377 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ὄλυμπος/Ólympos). Geography: [1-13]. People: [14-15]. [German version] [1] Home of the ›Olympian‹ gods, highest mountain in Greece (Latin Olympus) (Latin Olympus). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) [German version] I. Geography The highest mountain in Greece, regarded as the home of the 'Olympian' gods (twelve (Olympian) gods). Its altitude, overlooking all of its surroundings, creates a powerful impression, as do its massive size and density and its dramatic ascent, especially at the east and west, which …

Sicinos

(211 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σίκινος; Síkinos). Island in the southern Cyclades (39 km2;  Scyl. 48;  Str. 10,5,1; Ptol. 3,15,31), rising to 552 m  (Agios Mamas), rich in marble and slate; no natural safe harbours, today also named Síkinos. Its poetic epithet Oinóē 'wine-bearing' (Apoll. Rhod. 1,620; Plin. HN 4,69; Steph. Byz. s. v. Σ.) indicates viticulture. Already inhabited in the 3rd mill. BC (Early Cycladic ceramics), in the historical period it was settled by Ionians. In the 5th cent. BC S. probably capitulated to the Persians (Hdt. 8,46)…

Salamis

(1,094 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum)
(Σαλαμίς/ Salamís). [German version] [1] Largest island in the Saronic Gulf This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Natural catastrophes | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture Largest island (93 km2) in the Saronic Gulf (Saronikos Kolpos), with a deeply punctuated coastline, 0.5 km from the coast of Attica at the nearest point; three main mountainous massifs with hilly valleys between them; the highest elevations (366 m) are on the central massif (modern Mavrovouni). The island was original…

Rheneia

(330 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Ῥήνεια/ Rhḗneia, Ῥήναια/ Rhḗnaia, Ῥήνη/ Rhḗnē; Latin Rhene, Plin. HN 4,67). An island of the Cyclades, consisting of two parts linked by a narrow isthmus (16 km2 in all, highest point 150 m). At its narrowest point R., present-day Megali Dilos, is 600 m from the neighbouring island of Delos to the east. The ancient polis of R. with its small territory lay on the west coast of the northern area. In 543 BC, Peisistratus [4] had graves transferred from Delos to R., inasfar as they were in sight of the temple of Apollo (Hdt. 1,64; Thuc. …

Samothrace

(1,617 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) | Tsochos, Charalampos (Erfurt)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Peloponnesian War | Pompeius | Education / Culture (Σαμοθράκη; Samothrákē). [German version] I. Geography and history Island (178 km2, with Mount Phengari, 1161 m) in the northern Aegean Sea, 30 km out from the Tracian coast, rich in water, with a narrow and flat beach and lacking in natural harbours. There are isolated traces of Neolithic settlements (near Karyotai and Mikro Vuni), in the Bronze Age it was occupied by Thracians. In c. 700 BC, S. was settled by Greek colonists, probably by Aeolis [1] of Lesbos, who fou…

Oenussae

(160 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
(Οἰνοῦσσαι/ Oinoûssai). [German version] [1] Group of three islands on the southwest tip of the Messenic peninsula off the coast of Methone [1] Group of three islands on the southwest tip of the Messenic peninsula off the coast of Methone [1]: present-day Sapientza, Schiza and Hagia Mariani. The first two have been inhabited since the Hellenistic period. Traces of a Roman settlement were found in Sapientza. References: Paus. 4,34,12; Plin. HN. 4,55; Mela 2,110. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography E. Kirsten, F. Bölte, s.v. O., RE 17, 2281f. [German version] [2] Gro…

Thasos

(1,097 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Apollo | Macedonia, Macedones | Marble | Peloponnesian War | Pompeius | Education / Culture (Θάσος/ Thásos). [German version] I. Geography Island in the northern Aegean (Aegean Sea); 398 km2, up to 1203 m high, 10 km south-south-west of the mouth of the Nestus [1], separated from the Macedonian mainland by a c. 7 km wide strait, with no particularly deeply carved bays; predominantly marble with deposits of gneiss and mica schist, occasional granite (north-east, south-west); lush vegetation (includin…

Telethrion

(99 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Τελέθριον; Teléthrion). Mountains in the north of Euboea [1], to the southeast of a line from Oreos (modern Pyrgos) to Histiaea (Str. 10,1,3 f.), modern Galitsades (predominantly slate and sandstone, up to 977 m elevation: Profitis Elias); the location of the T. at Oechalia [4] (Steph. Byz. s. v. T.) is incorrect. T was famous for its medicinal herbs (Plin. HN 25,94; Theophr. Hist. pl. 4,5,2; 9,15,4; 9,15,8; 9,20,5). A particular region of T. was called Drymós ('oak forest': Str. loc.cit.). Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) Bibliography K. Fiehn, s. v. T., RE 5 A, 397  Philip…

Saronikos Kolpos

(103 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σαρωνικὸς κόλπος/ Sarōnikòs kólpos, πέλαγος/ pélagos, πόντος/ póntos, or πόρος/ póros; also κόλπος Αργείας/ kólpos Argeías, Ptol. 3,16,12, or Σαλαμινιακὸν πέλαγος/ Salaminiakòn pélagos, Str. 8,2,2), modern 'Gulf of Aegina'. Named after the mythical king Saron of Troezen, a generally shallow gulf of the Aegean Sea (Paus. 2,30,7; 2,32,10, cf. 2,34,2; Str. 2,5,21) between Attica in the northeast, Argolis in the southwest and the Isthmus of Corinth in the northwest, with many islands (e.g., Aegina, Salami…

Teutlussa

(71 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Τεύτλουσσα/ Teútloussa, Τευτλοῦσσα/ Teutloûssa; Teutloessa, Τευτλόεσσα; modern Sesklion). Island on the coast of Caria (Cares). In the winter of 412/1 BC the Athenians, defeated by a Spartan fleet 1 km to the north at Syme, sought shelter there (Thuc. 8,42,4; Steph. Byz. s. v. T.). Plin. HN 5,133 locates T. incorrectly at Rhodes. Limited traces of settlement survive. Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) Bibliography G. Susini, Supplemento epigrafico, in: ASAA 41/42, 1963/1964, 203-292, here 260.

Syros

(192 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σῦρος/ Sŷros). Island of many bays among the Cyclades (86 km2, rising to 432 m; Scyl. 58; Str. 10,5,3; 8; Mela 2,111; Plin. HN 4,67; Ptol. 3,15,30), still S. today. The island was settled by the 3rd millennium BC (early Cycladic necropolis on the northeastern coast at modern Chalandriani, settlement with fortification wall on the Kastri hill). Around 1000 BC it was colonised by Iones from Attica (Schol. Dionys. Per. 525). Hom. Od. 15,412 notes two cities on S., the earlier of which can pr…

Zarax

(331 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine | Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
(Ζάραξ/ Zárax). [German version] [1] City on the eastern coast of the Parnon This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea City of Laconian períoikoi on a bay (modern Limin Ierakas, Kastri or Ieraka) on the eastern coast of the Parnon, modern Ierax. Remains of ancient city walls on the northern side of the entrance to the harbour. Z. had an extremely advantageous maritime location (natural harbour) but lacked both good connections with the Laconian inland plain and drinking wa…
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