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Ortha, Orthe

(181 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ὄρθα/ Órtha, Ὄρθη/ Órthē). There were possibly two places with this name in Thessalia. [German version] [1] Place in Perrhaibia According to the Homeric Catalogue of Ships (Hom. Il. 2,739), O., with Elone and Olosson, was part of the region of the Polypoetes and therefore situated in Perrhaibia (Perrhaebi). Various ruins at Elasson are identified as O. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) [German version] [2] Town in southern Thessalia There are Hellenistic coins with the legend ΟΡΘ(Ι)ΕΩΝ/ ORTH(I)EŌN (HN 303), and a list of theorodoci in Delphi from the beginning of the 2nd…

Pelethronium

(84 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Πελεθρόνιον; Pelethrónion). Valley or region on the western slopes of the peak of  Pelium in Thessalia, where Chiron is supposed to have grown up and where the herb chironion or centaurion, used for healing snake bites, grew. Hence poetically the epithet 'Pelethronian' is used for Chiron, but also generally for 'Thessalian'. Documentation: Nic. Ther. 438ff.; 505; Strab. 7,3,6; Verg. G. 3,115. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 43f.  Id., s.v. Pelethronion, RE 19, 269f.

Homole, Homolium

(210 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ὁμόλη, Ὁμόλιον; Homólē, Homólion). Mountain at the northern end of the Thessalian  Ossa. At the outflow of the Peneius from the  Tempe Valley lay a town of the same name on the slope (not by the sea, Str. 9,5,22), attested to be above modern Omolion (formerly Laspochori). H. was the northernmost town of  Magnesia and so of Greece. H. overlooked the river crossing to lower Macedonia (Liv. 42,38,10; remains of a bridge about 1 km north of Omolion). Finds attest to settlement since anc…

Methylium

(67 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μεθύλιον; Methýlion). Town in western Thessaly, mentioned on coins and in a Delphic list of theorodókoi. Its location can only be approximately identified, between Cierium and Metropolis [4] in the region of Karditsa. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 85ff. F. Stählin, s.v. Methylion, RE 15, 1391.

Methone

(685 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
(Μεθώνη/ Methṓnē, Μοθώνη/ Mothṓnē). [German version] [1] City on the west coast of Messana [2] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones A city on the west coast of Messana [2]. Its indigenous name was Mothṓnē (Μοθώνη on coins), after the reef called Móthōn which rose in front of it; hence the medieval and modern name Modon, Mothoni, Methoni (Μεθώνη in Thuc. 2,25,1ff. and Strab. 8,4,3). There are few ancient remains: isolated bases of city walls under the Venetian fortress and the breakwater wa…

Argissa

(156 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἄργισσα; Árgissa). Listed in the ships' catalogue of the Iliad (Hom. Il. 2,738) as the city of the Lapith  Polypoetes, it was equated even in ancient times with the town of Argura (Str. 9,5,19). This was situated about 40 stades ( c. 7 km) east of  Atrax on the river  Peneus. Following the discovery of coins bearing the name of Argura, A. is now localized (as opposed to [1. 99 f.]) on the Gremnos-Magula, c. 7 km west of  Larisa, where traces of settlements have been found, dating back to the Dimini culture ( c. 6000 BC). Following a forcible occupation towards the end o…

Tripolis

(627 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Tausend, Sabine | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
(Τρίπολις/ Trípolis; literally, 'triple city'). [German version] [1] Perrhaebic T. The three cities of Azorus, Doliche and Pythium [2] in the small valley south of the Titarus and west of the Olympus [1] were referred to as the 'Perrhaebic T.' The locations of the cities are attested archaeologically, some in inscriptions as well. Up to the 3rd cent. BC, the T. belonged to the Macedonian Elimiotis, then to the alliance of the Perrhaebi and therefore to Thessalia. Literary documentation of T. exists only for the 3rd Macedonian War in 171 BC (Liv. 42,53,6; 42,67,7). Kramolisch, Herwig (Epp…

Mal(l)oea

(128 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] City in the Thessalian country of Perrhaebia ( Perrhaebi) in the valley of the Titaresius, identified with the ruin Paliokastro near Sykia. It is mentioned as the neighbouring town of Chyretiae only during the wars at the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC and only by Livy: in 199 and 191 M. went over to the Aetolian side and was won back by Philip V (Liv. 31,41,5; 36,10,5; 13,4) who had to give it back to Perrhaebia in 185 (Liv. 39,25,16). In 171 BC M. surrendered to king Perseus (Liv. 42,53,8) and soon afterwards was conquered by the Roman army and plundered (Liv. 42,67,7). Kramolisch,…

Narthacium

(147 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ναρθάκιον; Narthákion). Mountain and city in the Othrys mountain range located in the Thessalian region of Achaea Phthiotis. It was at Mount N. , the Xerovouni Avaritsis (1022 m), that, in 394 BC, Agesilaus [2] defeated the Thessalians, who were pursuing him as he retreated from Persia (Xen. Hell. 4,3,9; Plut. Agesilaus 16,5). The city of N. has been localized by inscriptions (middle of the 2nd cent. BC: IG IX 2, 89-91; ArchE 1927/8, 122f.) in the remains of a city (approx. 880 m)…

Pelinna

(191 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Πελίννα; Pelínna). A city in Thessalian Hestiaeotis (Pind. Pyth. 10,4 and Str. 9,5,17: Πελινναῖον/ Pelinna ȋon; erroneously located in Phthiotis in Steph. Byz. s.v. Π., as in Plin. HN 4,32: Magnesia), the modern Paliogardiki east of Taxiarches (15 km east of Trikala); it features a well-preserved 3.2 km long wall round an area of 59 ha. P. gained independent significance only in the 4th cent. BC; from this time on, therefore, Pelinnaei appear more often in Delphic inscriptions as naopoioí (Temple economy) or hieromnemones (cf. Syll.3 p. 340f. and 444f.). P. wa…

Trachis

(132 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Τραχίς/ Trachís). One of the oldest cities in the valley of the Spercheius, on the northern slopes of the Oete, at the end of the Asopus [1] gorge near the 'Trachinian Rocks' (Τραχίνιαι πέτραι/ Trachíniai pétrai, Hdt. 7,198). T. was the residence of Ceyx. In the Iliad T. is part of the territory of Peleus (Hom. Il. 2,682). In the 5th cent. BC, T. was the capital of the Malieis (Hdt. 7,199). In 426 BC, against the Oetaei who were advancing from the south, Sparta founded Heraclea [1] Trachinia only 6 stadia (about 1.2 km) away…

Heraclea

(2,510 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Peschlow-Bindokat, Anneliese (Berlin) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλεια; Hērákleia). [German version] [1] H. Trachinia This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Ἡράκλεια ἡ Τραχινία; H. hē Trachinía). City on a rock to the left of and above the exit of the gorge of the  Asopus [1] into the Spercheus plain, separated from Oete ( Oetaei, Oete) on the southern and western flanks by deep streambeds, where the Trachinian rocks rise up with their numerous tomb caves. The lower city has vanished without trace. H. was founded in …

Dierum

(74 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Διερόν; Dierón). Fortification on Mt. Olympus, occupied by the troops of Q. Marcius Philippus during the invasion of Macedonia in 169 BC (Liv. 44,3). Located near the village Karia at c. 1,450 m altitude. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography A. Rhizakis, Une forteresse macédonienne dans l'Olympe, in: BCH 110, 1986, 331-346 G. Lucas, La Tripolis de Perrhébie et ses confins, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 114 n. 243.

Melitaea

(273 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μελιταία, Μελιτεία; Melitaía, Meliteía). Town of Achaea Phthiotis on the northern slopes of Mount Othrys, its location near Avaritsa (officially modern M.) is confirmed epigraphically. The migrating Thessalians moved the earlier town of Pyrrha from the valley of the Enipeus to its historical location as M. (Strab. 9,5,6). Brasidas stayed there in 426 BC (Thucyd. 4,78,1). One of the two hieromnḗmones of Achaea Phthiotis generally came from M. (Syll.3 314,5; 444,5). M. was a stronghold of the Greeks in the Lamian War (Diod. 18,15,1). From approx. 2…

Titarus

(102 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Τίταρος/ Títaros). A mountain chain (Eust. in Hom. Il. 1,192,20; Str. 7a,1,14 f.; 9,5,20: Titárion; modern Sapkas, up to 1890 m elevation) between Mount Olympus [1] in the east and Mount Cambunia in the west, forming a natural boundary between Macedonia and Thessaly. The T. was the northern border of Perrhaebic Tripolis [1] and gave its name to one of the main rivers of the small region, Titaresius (Hom. Il. 2,751-755; location uncertain); today the name is officially applied to the whole river (in Antiquity also Europus/Xerias) up to the Peneius. Kramolisch, Herwi…

Pagasae

(531 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oracles | Education / Culture (Παγασαί/ Pasagaí). City in Thessaly on the northern coast of the bay named after it, modern Neai Pagasai. Tradition maintains that before P. was founded, the site was dedicated to Apollo Pagasaeus, and the wharf and was the place of departure and arrival for the Argonauts. P. was founded in c. 600 BC by the Thessali, who took possession of a 5,3 km wide coastal strip (Str. 9,5,15; Scyl. 64). Dependent on Pherae, P. was the most significant place on the 'Pagasite Gulf' (Παγασιτικὸς κόλπος/ Pagasitikòs …

Myrmidones

(153 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μυρμιδόνες/ Myrmidónes). People who lived in the old Thessalian region of Phthia (the future Achaea Phthiotis). According to Homer they were the subjects of king Peleus (Hom. Il. 21,188f.), and then of king Neoptolemos (Hom. Od. 3,188); as followers of Achilles [1] they took part in the Trojan War with 50 ships (Hom. Il. 2, 683ff.). Their neighbours were the  Hellenes of Hellas (Hom. Il. 9,382; Hom. Od. 11,496). A doubt has recently been raised whether their capital city (on the s…

Lapathus

(49 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Λαπαθοῦς; Lapathoûs). Small fortress in southern Olympus [1] above the Tempe valley near Condylum, near modern Hagios Elias, also called Charax. L. is mentioned because of the Roman troop movements in 169 BC (Liv. 44,2,11). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 10f.

Xynias

(58 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ξυνιάς; Xynías). Lake in a caldera of the Othrys (approximately 5  km × 7 km in size, up to 5 m in depth), named after the city of Xyniae on its southeastern shore, drained to the north, called Ezeros in the Middle Ages, and today dried up. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 159 f.

Cypaera

(104 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κύπαιρα; Kýpaira). Neighbouring town of Xyniae in south-western Achaea Phthiotis on the border with Dolopia, near modern Palaia Giannitsu (not near modern Makryrrachi, formerly Kaitsa). For 363 BC a temple donation from C. is noted in Delphi (Syll.3 239 B 12). From the end of the 3rd cent. C. belonged to the League of the Aetolians who conquered it back in 198 BC from its short-term possession by the Macedonians (Liv. 32,13,14). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géograph…
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