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Oetaei

(179 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Οἰταῖοι/ Oitaîoi). A tribe which originally lived in the low sandstone, flisch and neogene zone to the south and east of the main ridge of the Oete in the direction of the central Greek regions of Doris and Locris. From there the O. gradually annexed the northern neighbouring regions; Heraclea [1], which was primarily founded to repulse them, was annexed in the 4th cent. BC, followed by the entire former Malian region as far as the Spercheus and Thermopylae. The O. were linked pol…

Pamisus

(240 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Παμισός; Pamisós). [German version] [1] Main River of the Region of Messana [2] Main river of the region of Messana [2], fed by three source rivers in the upper Messenian plain. In Antiquity the strong springs of Hagios Floros in the lower Messenian plain were considered to be the starting-point of the P., whence the river was called P. only from that point on. It is the river with most constantly abundant flow in the Peloponnese, and is navigable by boat a short distance from the mouth. At the Hagios Floros springs there was a sanctuary to P. with a small Doric templum in antis from the 6th cent…

Xyniae

(149 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ξυνίαι; Xyníai). City in Achaea Phthiotis in western Othrys, about 4 km southwest of modern X. (formerly Dauklí). X. lay 74 m above the southeastern shore of Lake Xynias and controlled the pass on the road from Lamia [2] to Thaumaci. X. was Aetolian from the middle of the 3rd cent. BC (at this time there was a definition of borders with the neighbouring city of Melitaea: IG IX 2, p. XI, no. 3), but at the end of the 3rd cent., X. was Macedonian. In 198 BC, after a massacre of its …

Pteleum

(300 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Πτελεόν; Pteleón). [German version] [1] Place at the northern end of the bay of Erythrae Fortified place at the northern end of the bay of Erythrae [2], not located with certainty (Plin. HN 5,117; Steph. Byz. s. v. Π.). As a member of the Delian League (ATL 1,390 f.; 486; 2,82) P. was at times formally independent, but in fact it was dependent on Erythrae. P. is mentioned by Thuc. (8,24,2; 8,31,2) in connexion with the naval war in the waters around Miletus [2] and Chios in the winter of 412/1 BC (Peloponnesian War). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) Bibliography J. Keil, P.…

Acharrae

(73 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἀχάρραι; Achárrai). Town in north-western  Achaea Phthiotis, at the border with Dolopia ( Dolopes) and Thessaliotis ( Thessaly). A. was the mint for 4th/3rd-cents. BC bronze coins bearing the inscription Ἐκκαρρεων (HN 294); its exact location remains unclear. In the Second Macedonian War, A. surrendered in 198 BC to the  Aetolians during their advance into south-western Thessaly (Liv. 32,13,13; further sources in [1. 154 f.]). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography 1 F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924.

Phthiotis

(216 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Φθιῶτις/ Phthiôtis). Name of two regions which were not distinguished even in early ancient literature: 1) Thessalian P., the southern part of Thessaly, the area of Pharsalus (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 52; Aristot. fr. 497; Str. 9,5,3); 2) Achaea P., bordering on 1) to the south and south-east, the area of the Othrys, the plain of Halmyrus and the northern bank of the Thermaikos Kolpos, including several cities (Scyl. 63; Hdt. 1,56; 7,132; Thuc. 1,3; Heracleides Creticus fr. 3,2; Scymn. 605; Str. 1,2,38; 9,5,1; 5,8-11; Pol. 18,20,5; Ptol. 3,13,46). As a region of períoikoi

Callithera

(93 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Καλλιθήρα; Kallithḗra). Southern Thessalian town, the target of an Aetolian raid in 198 BC; they drove the inhabitants of C. back inside their walls, but were unable to capture the town (Liv. 32,13,11f.). Judging by the itinerary of the Aetolians, C. is not to be located near the modern Kallithira (formerly Seklitsa), but about 10 km south-east of it near Paliuri. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 48-91, especially 77ff. F. Stählin…

Omphalium

(222 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ὀμφάλιον/ Omphálion). [German version] [1] Plain in Crete Plain (Diod. Sic. 5,70) on Crete in the area of Knossos on the river Triton (modern Platyperama; Callim. H. 1,42ff.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὀ.). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography C. Bursian, Geographie von Griechenland, vol. 2, 1868, 570  M. Guarducci, Inscriptiones Creticae, vol. 1, 1935, 45f. [German version] [2] Place in Thessalia Place in Thessalia (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὀ.) near modern Lutra Smokovu, possibly the sanctuary of Omphale. The Dolopian cities of Angeae and Ctimenae fought over its possession [1]. Kramolisch,…

Iolcus

(355 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine (Ἰωλκός; Iōlkós). Already named in the most ancient legends (Aeson, Alcestis, Argonautae, Jason, Neleus, Peleus, Pelias). Residence city at the northern exit of the Gulf of  Pagasae on the Anaurus (modern Xerias). A large settlement mound in the old city of Volos (Kastro Volo) bears witness to continuity of settlement at the latest since the early Bronze Age - many Mycena…

Thaumaci

(168 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Θαυμακοί/ Thaumakoí). City in Achaea Phthiotis on the northern slopes of the Othrys mountains, on one of the most important routes to Thessaly. Remains of walls and ceramic finds suggest an origin in the 4th cent. BC; the first literary sources refer to events in the 3rd cent. BC, when T. was part of the Aetolian League. T. is mentioned several times in the military conflicts between the Romans, the Aetolians and Philippus [7] V shortly after 200 BC (Liv. 32,4,1-7; 32,4,13; 36,14,…

Angeae

(93 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἀγγείαι; Angeíai). Town in south-east  Pindus within the settlement area of the  Dolopes, probably close to the modern Rentina. From the 2nd cent. BC, A. outmatched the main town of  Ctimenae in importance. In the course of the Second Macedonian War, it was captured by the  Aetolians in 198 BC (Liv. 32,13,10), but continued to exist (cf. Syll.3 692,10 of 130 BC). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography Y. Béquignon, La retraite de Philippe V. en 198 et l'incursion étolienne en Thessalie, in: BCH 52, 1928, 445 f. F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, …

Peirasia

(147 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Πειρασία; Peirasía). A city in the northeast of Thessaliotis (Thessalians, Thessalia), with ruins on the isolated 313 m high limestone mountain of Strongylovuno south of the modern Vlochós on the left bank of the Enipeus [2]. It was identified with the Homeric Astérion (Hom. Il. 2,735) (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀστέριον), and was allied with Athens in 431 BC (Thuc. 2,22,3 with schol.). Its contributions for the Delphic temple in 359/7 BC are attested in inscriptions (Syll.3 240 H, col. II 6ff.). Ancient remains: three concentric polygonal city walls with more …

Aenianes

(603 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Αἰνιᾶνες; Ainiânes). Small tribe, related to the  Myrmidones and the Achaeans of  Phthia, originally settled in the vicinity of the  Perrhaebi at the river Titaresius and in the surrounding plains, then driven south by the Thessalians advancing from the north; in historical times, they settled in the Aenis region in the upper valley of the Spercheus between the Dolopes, the Achaeans of Phthiotis, the  Malieis and the  Oetaei (Hom. Il. 2,749; Hdt. 7,198; further sources [1; 2]). Th…

Arne

(215 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ἄρνη; Árnē). [German version] [1] Boeotian settlement Boeotian settlement (Hom. Il. 2,507). According to Str. 1,3,18; 9,2,34-35, A. was either equated with  Acraephia, or believed to have been drowned by  L. Copais. According to other sources, A. was the ancient name of  Chaeronea (Paus. 9,40,5; Steph. Byz. s.v. Χαιρώνεια). It is probably not identical with the fortress of Gla which had been abandoned in the late Mycenaean period [1].  Boeotia Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography 1 F. Noack, A., in: MDAI (A) 19, 1894, 405-485. J. M. Fossey, Papers in Boiotian Topography and H…

Myrae

(53 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μύραι/ Mýrai, Scyl. 65; or to be corrected to Εὐρέα[ι]/ Euréa[i]? Cf. [1]). Town in the north of the peninsula of Magnesia [1], south of Homole, location unknown. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography     1 J.A.W. Warren, Two Notes on Thessalian Coins, in: NC 7,1, 1961, 1-8. F. Stählin, s.v. M., RE 16, 1089.

Limnaeum

(88 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Λιμναῖον; Limnaîon, Latin Limnaeum). In 191 BC, the Romans and Philip V marched through eastern Thessaly to drive out Antiochus III and the Athamanians. During the siege of Pelinna, Philip also attacked L. which did not surrender until the Roman cavalry appeared (Liv. 36,13,9ff.). There is a lack of other information. L. has recently been localized near Vlochos above the swampy confluence region of the rivers Enipeus [2] and Peneius. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography J. Cl. Decourt, La vallée de l'Enipeus en Thessalie, 1990, 120f.

Othrys

(166 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ὄθρυς/ Óthrys). Range of mountains, c. 85 km long and 45 km wide, between the Malian Gulf and the Spercheus valley on one side and Thessalia on the other. The O. consists of several chains of mountains (slate, lime) and predominantly has the character of a low mountain range. To the south it falls of steeply in a straight edge, but to the north it is more structured. The greatest elevation is Yerakovouni (1726 m). Politically the region was part of Achaea Phthiotis (Achaei). The great…

Myrmidones

(153 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μυρμιδόνες/ Myrmidónes). People who lived in the old Thessalian region of Phthia (the future Achaea Phthiotis). According to Homer they were the subjects of king Peleus (Hom. Il. 21,188f.), and then of king Neoptolemos (Hom. Od. 3,188); as followers of Achilles [1] they took part in the Trojan War with 50 ships (Hom. Il. 2, 683ff.). Their neighbours were the  Hellenes of Hellas (Hom. Il. 9,382; Hom. Od. 11,496). A doubt has recently been raised whether their capital city (on the s…

Lapathus

(49 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Λαπαθοῦς; Lapathoûs). Small fortress in southern Olympus [1] above the Tempe valley near Condylum, near modern Hagios Elias, also called Charax. L. is mentioned because of the Roman troop movements in 169 BC (Liv. 44,2,11). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 10f.

Xynias

(58 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ξυνιάς; Xynías). Lake in a caldera of the Othrys (approximately 5  km × 7 km in size, up to 5 m in depth), named after the city of Xyniae on its southeastern shore, drained to the north, called Ezeros in the Middle Ages, and today dried up. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 159 f.
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