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Lethaeus

(131 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Ληθαῖος; Lēthaîos). [German version] [1] Tributary of the Peneius Left-hand tributary of the Peneius in north-west Thessalia, flows through Tricca (Paus. 14,139), modern Trikkalinos. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 121. [German version] [2] River in southern Crete River in southern Crete, which flows through Gortyn from north to south (Str. 10,4,11), modern Mitropolianos. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] [3] Tributary of the Maiander Right-hand tributary of the Maeander (river god: coins o…

Enipeus

(227 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ἐνιπεύς; Enipeús). [German version] [1] Tributary to the right of the Alpheius [1] in Elis A tributary to the right of the  Alpheius [1] in Elis, also Βαρνίχιος ( Barníchios, ‘River of Lambs’) [1], modern Lestenitsa west of Olympia (Str. 8,3,32; Hom. Od. 11,238ff.). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography 1 E. Curtius, Peloponnesos 2, 1852, 71f. [German version] [2] Main river of the West Thessalian plain Main river of the West Thessalian plain, modern Tsanarlis. Its source is in the Othrys range near Melitaea under the name Elipeus (IG IX 2, 205 and add.…

Armenium

(180 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἀρμένιον; Arménion). Town in  Thessaly, according to Homer's catalogue of ships located near  Pherae on  L. Boebe (Hom. Il. 2,734: Ὀρμένιον; Orménion); in the Hellenistic period, it was a kome, belonging to  Demetrias (Str. 9,5,15; 18). Its eponymous hero was Armenus, who went to Colchis with  Jason (Str. 11,4,8; 14,12). The ancient settlement is localized north of Pherae (modern Velestino) near the modern villages of Neon Perivalion and Armenion, where a hill (Petra) bearing the remains of Cyclopean…

Celaetha

(108 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κελαίθα; Kelaítha). Town, according to a list of theorodokoi from Delphi from the 2nd cent. BC, located near  Cierium and Metropolis in south-western Thessaly. Probably not identical with the vicus Celathara which the Aetolians seized and plundered in the course of their raid into Dolopia and southern Thessaly in 198 BC (Liv. 32,13,12f.). In contrast, Kelaíthra is documented as a Boeotian town ‘near Arne’ (presumably more likely Cierium in Thessaly) (Steph. Byz. s.v. Κελαίθρα). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolop…

Malieis

(434 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Μαλιεῖς; Malieîs). Tribe of the estuary plain of the Spercheius, whose territory bordered on the gulf named after them, and in the west, in the Spercheius Valley, on that of the Aenianes. Homer makes no mention of them. They were among the original members of the Pylaeic-Delphic amphictyony ( amphiktyonía), whose first centre, the sanctuary of Demeter at Anthele, lay in their territory (Aeschin. or. 2,116; Paus. 10,8,2; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 63). Their archaic customs are often men…

Antron

(169 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἄντρων; Ántrōn). City in  Achaea Phthiotis, on the Malian Gulf opposite  Euboea, on a cliff c. 25 m above the sea, near the modern Fano. Remains of the very old city wall and necropoleis from the Mycenaean to the Roman periods have survived. Homer (Il. 2,697; Hymn. Dem. 491 [1. 181-183]) mentions A. and its  cult of Demeter. In 342 BC  Philippus II made A. a Macedonian possession by means of bribery. In 302 BC A. was captured by  Demetrius. A. evidently remained a Macedonian possession until th…

Tempe

(365 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (τὰ Τέμπη/ tà Témpē, Latin Tempe, Stenae). A gorge, ca. 8 km long, up to 45 m wide and 500 m deep, between Olympus [1] to the north and Ossa [1] to the south, traversed by the Peneius from the Thessalian interior (Thessalians, Thessalia) east to the Aegean Sea; known today as Koiláda Tempón. In Classical Antiquity, the valley, actually formed by erosion, was held to be the result of an earthquake (Hdt. 7,129,4; Plin. HN 4,31). Myth has it that, in this valley, the nymph Daphne [2], while f…

Casthanaea

(97 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κασθαναία; Kasthanaía). Near C. (‘village’, Str. 9,5,22) on the Magnesian east coast, the Persian fleet foundered in a storm in 480 BC (Hdt. 7,188;  Persian War). In around 290 BC, C. was included in the synoikismós following the foundation of  Demetrias [1]. Coins were minted at the time Constantine (coin finds). C. is equated with the as yet hardly investigated ruins near the modern Keramidion. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography H. Kramolisch, s.v. K., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 310 W. K. Pritchett, Xerxes' Fleet at the ‘Ovens’, in: AJA 47, 1963, 1ff. F. …

Tisaeum

(72 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Τίσαιον; Tísaion). Mountain in the south of Magnesia [1] (modern Bardzochia, 644 m elevation); today, the whole of the east-west part of the peninsula is called T. The Argonauts passed by this mountain (Apoll. Rhod. 1,568 ff.). There was a temple to Diana Tisaea there (Val. Fl. 2,7) and a station for signalling by fire to Demetrias [1] (Pol. 10,42,7; Liv. 28,5,17). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, s. v. T., RE 6 A, 1467.

Pythium

(243 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Πύθιον/ Pýthion). [German version] [1] Term for Attic sanctuaries to Apollo A term rarely used in modern archaeology but common in Antiquity for various Athenian and Attic sanctuaries to Apollo: 1. in southeast Athens on the right bank of the Ilissus (inscriptions, tripod bases extant); 2. cave sanctuary in the cliff on the northwest side of the Acropolis (numerous finds; however, often denoted in ancient literature with the cult name of Apóllōn Hypakraîos); 3. near the Daphni monastery on the sacred way to Eleusis (of undetermined location but presumably the sourc…

Dion

(2,219 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Et al.
[German version] I. Persons (Δίων; Díōn) Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [I 1] Close friend of Plato and defender of his philosophy Son of Hipparinus, brother-in-law and son-in-law of Dionysius I of Syracuse, b. 409 BC, close friend of Plato and defender of his philosophy since Plato's first visit to Syracuse in 388. He gained prestige and wealth as Dionysius' I' trusted friend and advisor and also remained an influential person under Dionysius II. In 366, he arbitrated the peace with Carthage and called Pl…

Sycurium

(73 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Συκύριον; Sykýrion). Place in the Dotium region at the western end of the Tempe valley, used by Perseus [2] as a permanent camp for actions against the Roman army in the third of the Macedonian Wars, in 171 BC (Liv. 42,54; 62; 64; 67). The location is uncertain, the assignment of the name to modern S. (formerly Makrokeserli) is arbitrary. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography H. Kramolisch, s.v. Sykyrion, in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 644f.

Ormenium, Orminium

(247 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ὀρμένιον/ Orménion, Ὀρμίνιον/ Ormínion). According to the context in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,734ff.), Orménion was the residence of Eurypylus [1] and was situated in western Thessaliotis, but it was already abandoned in historic times and has not been located up to the present day. The historic township of Ormínion was in Magnesia [1] and, around 290 BC, it was incorporated into the newly established Demetrias [1], but it continued to exist as a kṓmē (Str. 9,5,15; 18: Ὀρμίνιον/ Ormínion; Plin. HN 4,32). Despite the geographic difference to t…

Larisa

(2,121 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Et al.
(Λάρισα; Λάρισσα; Lárisa, Lárissa). Name of numerous locations in Greece and Asia Minor, cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ. [German version] [1] Acropolis of Argos The 289-m high acropolis of Argos with Mycenaean remains (not precisely identified) [1]. The temple of Zeus Larisaios and Athena Polias under the large Venetian castle has been excavated. References: Str. 8,6,7; Paus. 2,24,1; 3f.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Λάρισαι πόλεις. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 N. Vassilatos, Larissa. The Acropolis of Argos, 1994. [German version] [2] City in Achaea Phthiotis Important city in Achaea Phthi…

Nessonis limne

(62 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Νεσσωνὶς λίμνη; Ness ōnìs límnē). Silted-up lake, to the north-east of Larisa [3] in Thessalian Pelasgiotis, formerly fed primarily by the Peneius, today dried out. Ancient authors were interested in the fluctuations in its water level and its connection with the Boibe to the south (Str. 9,5,20). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, s.v. N., RE 17, 79f.

Phthia

(341 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] [1] Kingdom of Peleus and Achilles (Φθία/ Phthía, Φθίη/ Phthíē). The kingdom of Peleus and Achilles [1], home of the Myrmidones (Hom. Il. 1,155; 2,683f.; 762-767; 19,323; Hom. Od. 11,496), extending over the valley of the Spercheius and the adjacent north shore of the Thermaios Kolpos (Str. 9,5,8). The Spercheius was regarded as the home river of Achilles (Hom. Il. 23,140-144) and Phthios as the son of Spercheus (schol. Hom. Il. 23,142). The Dolopes lived 'in the most remote part of P.' (H…

Condylum

(83 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Κόνδυλον; Kóndylon). Fortification in the southern Olympus on a bypass around the valley of the Tempe that runs through  Gonnus, probably to be equated with Gonnocondylus, and located near modern Tsurba-Mandria. When Philip V released Perrhaebia in 196 BC, he kept C. with the place name Olympias until 185 (Liv. 39,25,16). A garrison of Perseus was stationed in C. in 169 BC during the Third Macedonian War. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Gonnoi, 1973, Index F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 8f.

Amphanae

(130 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἀμφαναί; Amphanaí). Town on the narrow coastal strip of the Pelasgiotis ( Pelasgians) near Cape Pyrrha, modern Angistri. According to its foundation myth already existing in the pre-Thessalian period, A. was later outstripped by the Thessalian town of  Pagasae. Most recent reference from the middle of the 4th cent. BC (FGrH 115 Theopompus fr. 54); its cultic tradition continued in  Demetrias. In contrast with older studies it is no longer localized on Mount Soros, but to the south of it in the ru…

Menelais

(72 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μενελαΐς; Menelaḯs). Town in Dolopia ( Dolopes) reclaimed as formerly Macedonian by Philip V in 185 BC (Liv. 39,26,1). M. may have been on the northern slopes of Mount Itamos, where there is a ruin near Kasthanaia. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 60, 81f. F. Stählin, s.v. M., RE 15, 806.

Olympus

(2,377 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ὄλυμπος/Ólympos). Geography: [1-13]. People: [14-15]. [German version] [1] Home of the ›Olympian‹ gods, highest mountain in Greece (Latin Olympus) (Latin Olympus). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) [German version] I. Geography The highest mountain in Greece, regarded as the home of the 'Olympian' gods (twelve (Olympian) gods). Its altitude, overlooking all of its surroundings, creates a powerful impression, as do its massive size and density and its dramatic ascent, especially at the east and west, which …
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