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Cambyses

(1,227 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Καμβύσης; Kambýsēs, Old Persian Kambūjiya; Elamite and Babylonian Kambuzija). [German version] [1] Father of  Cyrus II Father of  Cyrus II, called ‘the Great King, King of Anšan’ (TUAT I 409,21) in the Cyrus cylinder. According to Hdt. 1,107, married to the Median princess  Mandane; according to Ctesias, Cyrus II and the Median king were not related (FGrH 680 F 9,1). More recent research emphasizes that before Darius there were no family ties between the dynasty of Cyrus and the Achaemenids [1]; any attempt a…

Deioces

(174 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Δηιόκης; Dēiókēs). According to Hdt. 1, the first ruler of the  Medes, said to have ruled for 53 years; elected by the Medes as their ruler, he is said to have had a fortress built ( Ecbatana), surrounded himself with a bodyguard and introduced a court ceremonial designed to accustom his subjects to regard their ruler as a higher being. Herodotus' account combines contemporary elements of Achaemenid court protocol with Greek ideas on the ways of a tyrant (Hdt. 1, 96-101; [2]). The Greek personal name D. corresponds to the name Daiakku mentioned in Neo-Assyrian sources…

Bessus

(72 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] Satrap of Bactria, Darius III's general at the battle of  Gaugamela. Shortly afterwards he killed Darius, assumed the name Artaxerxes and tried to hold the eastern part of the Persian Empire against  Alexander [4] the Great.  Spitamenes i.a. betrayed him; he was condemned to death in Ecbatana for high treason (Arr. Anab., Curt. passim). Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) Bibliography F. Holt, Alexander the Great and Bactria, 1989.  

Boges

(54 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] Persian noble who defended Eïon on the Strymon against  Cimon in 476/5 BC (Hdt. 7,107). He rejected Cimon's offer of free passage and committed suicide, with all of his household, when the fortress had to surrender. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) Bibliography P. Briant, Histoire de l'empire perse, 1996, 364.  

Arachosia

(177 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Ἀραχωσία; Arachōsía, Old Persian Harauvatis̆). Achaemenid, then Seleucid,  satrapy in eastern Iran/western Afghanistan; in the mid 3rd cent. BC it belonged to India. First mentioned in the Behistun inscription ( c. 519 BC) [1 DB § 17]; see also Arr. Anab., Curt. passim; Str. 11,10,1; Plin. HN 6,92; Ptol. 6,20; 6,61. Capital city, near to the Kandahar of today ( Alexandria), where a bilingual Greek-Aramaic inscription and a Greek inscription by the Mauryan king Aśoka were found. Excavations show that the city …

Aginis

(67 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] Village (κώμη; kṓmē) in the Susiana mentioned by Alexander's fleet commander Nearchus at the conclusion of his voyage from the Indus to Babylonia (Arr. Ind. 42,4). Aginis lay between the mouth of the Tigris and Pasitigris (today Karun); Strab. 15,3,5 also describes its location but without calling it by name. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) Bibliography F. C. Andreas, s. v. A., RE 1, 810-816.

Belesys

(92 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Babylon. Bēlšunu). Sub-governor of Babylon from 421 at least until 414 BC; Satrap of Syria at least between 407 and 401, where he owned large estates and a palace (Xen. An. 1,4,10). Being appointed as governor was unusual for a Babylonian and was probably owing to his support of Darius II in his battle for the throne. B.'s business documents written in Babylonian language (dated 424-400 BC) were found in  Babylon. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) Bibliography M. W. Stolper, The Kasr Archive, in: Achaemenid History 4, 1990, 195-205.

Intaphernes

(96 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Old Persian Vindafarna, Elamite Mindaparna). Supporter of Darius I in the conspiracy against (Pseudo-)Bardiya [2] ( Gaumata) [1. DB 3.84] in 522 BC. He crushed the second Babylonian rebellion [1. DB 83-91]. Herodotus (3,118-119) tells of an alleged uprising of I. for which his entire family was exterminated; only the brother of his wife was spared at her pleading (a parallel to Sophocles' Antigone). Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) Bibliography 1 R. G. Kent, Old Persian, 1953 2 M. Mayrhofer, Onomastica Persepolitana, 1973, 8.…

Achaemenids

(589 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Ἀχαιμενίδαι; Achaimenídai, in Old Persian Hakhāmanišiya). [German version] [1] Persian clan Persian clan (φρήτρη; phrḗtrē) belonging to the Pasargadae tribe (Hdt. 1,125). Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) [German version] [2] Persian dynasty Persian dynasty that ruled in Persia (Achaemenid empire) from the time of Darius I [1]. Various contradicting genealogies of the Achaemenid family line have been passed down. According to the cylinder inscription of Cyrus II [2], he was the great-grandson of Teisp…

Aryandes

(66 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Ἀρυάνδης; Aryándēs). Satrap of Egypt under Cambyses II and Darius I, suppressed an uprising in Libya (Hdt. 4.200-203). Executed by Darius for high treason, because he is supposed to have tried to imitate royal coins ( Dareikos), minting high-value silver coins (Hdt. 4,166); to date not archaeologically attested. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) Bibliography J. Balcer, Prosopographical Study of the Ancient Persians, 1993, 93f.

Artabazanes

(69 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Ἀρταβαζάνης; Artabazánēs). Son of Darius I and a daughter of Gobryas, half-brother of Xerxes, who contested his succession to the throne (Hdt. 7.2-3); a Xerxes inscription possibly relates to this [1. 150]. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) Bibliography 1 R. G. Kent, Old Persian, 1953. J. Balcer, Prosopographical Study of the Ancient Persians, 1993, 109-110 H. Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Yaunā en Persai, 1980, 69-75 D.M. Lewis, Sparta and Persia, 1977, 15.

Darius

(855 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Ancient Persian Dārayava(h)uš, ‘Guardian of Good’, Greek Δαρεῖος < Δαρειαῖος; Dareîos < Dareiaîos). The name of various Persian kings and princes [3]. D., the Mede (Dan. 9) cannot be identified historically. [German version] [1] D. I. Son of Hystaspes Son of  Hystaspes, grandson of  Arsames [1], from the Achaemenid family ( Achaemenids), became king (522 BC) [1], after banding together with six accomplices from the country's most influential families and overthrowing the usurper  Gaumata. During the first year of his reign, D. had …

Aluaka

(80 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Ἀλουάκα, Ἀλούακα; Alouáka, Aloúaka). According to Ptol. 6,2,10, a place in Media. If the Turkish region of Albâq is linked to the ancient name, A. was situated in the upper region of the Great Zab (Lycus). Then A. could be the same place as the Symbace mentioned by Str. 11,13,2 (Albake -- Albâq -- Aluaka), that according to Strabo was situated on the border between Armenia Maior and Media  Atropatene. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)

Artabazus

(267 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Ἀρτάβαζος; Artábazos). Old Pers. Rtavazdah, Elamite Irdumasda. [German version] [1] Satrap of Maka Satrap of Maka at the time of Darius I [1; 2]. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) [German version] [2] Satrap of Babylon Father of Tritantaichmes, satrap of Babylon (Hdt. 1,192). Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) [German version] [3] Son of Pharnaces Son of Pharnaces, commander of the Chorasmians and Parthians in Xerxes' army (Hdt. 7.66); from 477 BC satrap of Hellespontic Phrygia (Thuc. 1.129-132). T…

Artystone

(81 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Ἀρτυστόνη; Artystóne, Elamite Irtašduna). Daughter of Cyrus II, favourite wife of Darius I, mother of  Arsames and  Gobryas. Darius had a golden statue made of her (Hdt. 7.69). She owned extensive property in Persis (Kukkannakan, Randu), which she administered herself. Elamite administrative documents from Persepolis are sealed with her seal; A. is also mentioned there together with her son Arsames. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) Bibliography M. Brosius, Royal and Non-royal Women in Achaemenid Persia, 1996, 81, 125-127.

Abrocomas

(137 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Ἀβροκόμης, Ἀβροκόμας; Abrokómēs, Abrokómas). [German version] [1] Son of Darius I and Phratagune Son of Darius I and Phratagune, fell during the battle of Thermopylae (Hdt. 7,224) [1]. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) [German version] [2] Persian General Persian general at the time of Artaxerxes II, 401 BC, commissioned to lead the war against the Egyptians; questionable whether he was satrap of Syria (Xen. An. 1,3,20; Diod. Sic. 14,20,5). Hurried to support Artaxerxes in the battle of Cunaxa, but he arriv…

Ariaeus

(114 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
[German version] (Ἀριαῖος; Ariaîos). Friend and troop commander of  Cyrus the younger at Cunaxa (Xen. An. 1,7,5; 9,31; 10,1; Oec. 4,18 f.; Plut. Artax. 11), who was offered the Persian crown by the Greeks after the death of Cyrus; A. declined (Xen. An. 2,2,1). He changed to  Tissaphernes' side shortly after the Greek commanders were taken prisoner and possibly aided him in his conspiracy against Artaxerxes II (Xen. An. 2,5,35). In 395 BC, A. was the satrap of Phrygia and involved in Tissaphernes' murder (Diod. Sic. 14,80,6-8; Polyaenus, Strat. 7,16,1; Hell. Oxy. 13,19,39). Kuhrt, Améli…

Artaphernes

(181 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht)
(Ἀρταφέρνης, Ἀρταφρένης; Artaphérnēs, Artaphrénēs, Old Pers. Rtafarnah, Elamite Irdaparna). [German version] [1] Conspirator in Aeschylus's Persians In Aesch. Pers. 776f. one of the conspirators who killed  Bardiya. Probably the same as Intaphernes (Vindafarnah) in Hdt. 3.70. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) [German version] [2] Brother of Darius I and governor of Sardes Brother of Darius I and governor of Sardes (Hdt. 5.25). Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) [German version] [3] Son of A. [2] Son of A. [2], with Dat…

Ariobarzanes

(559 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ἀριοβαρζάνης; Ariobarzánēs, Old Persian Ariyabrdana). [German version] [1] Satrap of Dascylium Vice-governor in 407 BC under  Pharnabazus, satrap of Dascylium, and perhaps his eldest son (Xen. Hell. 1,4,7) [1]; guest-friend of the Spartan  Antalcidas (Xen. Hell. 5,1,28). Succeeded Pharnabazus in 387 BC as satrap of Propontis [1]. In 368 BC A. succeeded, with the aid of his confidant  Philiscus, in assuring the support of Athens and Sparta (Xen. Hell. 7,1,27), which he in fact obtained during his revolt a…
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