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(9,615 words)

Author(s): Usarski, Frank | Horst, Pieter W. van der | Dan, Joseph | Lüdemann, Gerd | Skarsaune, Oskar | Et al.
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Judaism – III. New Testament – IV. Church History – V. Islam – VI. Fundamental Theology – VII. Practical Theology – VIII. Missiology I. Concept The necessity – felt with varying intensity by different communities of faith – to lend credibility to one's own convictions, ways of behaving, etc. in the face of other, perhaps dominant worldviews, using appropriate means, is an essential element of the history of religion. When the term apologetics is used in this context there is a certain conformity in content w…

Gentile Christians

(2,734 words)

Author(s): Lüdemann, Gerd
[German Version] I. State of Research and Statement of the Problem – II. Historical Survey – III. The Hellenists – IV. Paul – V. Development after Paul I. State of Research and Statement of the Problem Modern study of primitive Christianity began with F.C. Baur's article “Die Christuspartei in der korinthischen Gemeinde, der Gegensatz des petrinischen und paulinischen Christenthums in der ältesten Kirche, der Apostel Petrus in Rom” ( TZTh 4, 1831, 61–206), which placed the relationship between Jewish and Gentile Christians in the center of the discussion. Ci…

Heitmüller, Wilhelm

(191 words)

Author(s): Lüdemann, Gerd
[German Version] (Aug 3, 1869, Döteberg near Hannover – Jan 29, 1926, Tübingen) belonged to the History of Religions School. He acquired his postdoctoral lecture qualification in Göttingen in 1902, became full professor for the NT in Marburg in 1908, and was awarded professorships in Bonn (1920) and Tübingen (1923). From 1897 to 1917, he edited the Theologische Rundschau in cooperation with W. Bousset. His main field of interest was the study of NT cult and of its origins in the history of religions, but also the establishment of Christianity by Jesus or Paul. Gerd Lüdemann Bibliography Wor…

Apostolic Council (Council of Jerusalem)

(171 words)

Author(s): Lüdemann, Gerd
[German Version] The term “Apostolic Council” refers to the meeting between representatives of primarily Gentile Christian communities (Paul, Barnabas) with the leaders of the original Palestinian community (the so-called “pillars” – James, the brother of Jesus, Peter, and John, the son of Zebedee) in Jerusalem c. 48, as described in Gal 2 and Acts 15. They di…