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Valamer

(89 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Ostrogoth king, brother of Theodemir and Vidimir, uncle of Theoderic the Great (Theodericus [3]), who took part in the campaigns of Attila (Iord. Rom. 331; Iord. Get. 199), but after AD 453 escaped from Hunnish rule. After settling in Pannonia ( c. 454), between 459 and 462 the brothers fought successfully against Byzantium for better treaty conditions (Leo [4] I). In about 468/9 V. was killed in an attack by the Sciri (Iord. Get. 270 f.; 275 f.; [1. 265]). PLRE 2, 1135 f. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 H. Wolfram, Die Goten, 42001, 259-265.

Rodulfus

(43 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (Rodoulfus). King of the Heruli who fell in AD 508 in the battle against the Langobardi (Procop. Goth. 2,14,11-22). Probably the son in arms of Theodericus. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 946 2 J. Moorhead, Theoderic in Italy, 1992, 193.

Theodericus (Theoderic)

(1,575 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
( Theodericus; Θευδέριχος; Theudérichos). [German version] [1] T. I King of the Visigoths, AD 418-451, successor to Vallia, probably the son-in-law of Alaricus [2] [1. 180]. Despite the settlement of the Visigoths in Gaul in 418, he besieged Arelate (Arles) in 425, then renewed the foedus with Rome ( foederati ), but again fought against Aetius [2] in 436. In 438, the Goths were defeated; in 439, there was another treaty with Rome after renewed Gothic successes. In 450, Attila attempted in vain to win over T.; T. was kill…

Matasuntha

(92 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Granddaughter of Theoderic [3] the Great; having been forced into marriage in 536 AD by Vitigis, she tried to betray Ravenna to the Byzantines in 538, supposedly in order to marry Belisarius (?) (Procop. Goth. 2,10,11). In 540 she and Vitigis (d. 542) were brought to Constantinople, and in 549/50 she married Germanus [1] (d. 550). Birth of a son, Germanus, in 550/1. M. bore the unusual title of a patricia (Iord. Get. 81). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography PLRE 3B, 851f. H. Wolfram, Die Goten, 1990, 343, 347, 357.

Thela

(61 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Son of Odoacer; elevated by his father to Caesar in Italy ( c. 489-493 AD); from 493 onwards a hostage of Theoderic [3] the Great, after the death of Odoacer (in 493) banished to Gaul and on attempting to return murdered by Theoderic. (Iohannes Antiochenus fr. 241a, FHG 5, 29; Anon. Vales. 11,54). PLRE 2,1064. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)

Onulf

(123 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Brother of Odoacer. After the fall of Attila's kingdom, O. led the Sciri (Iord. Get. 277f.), together with his father. After their defeat, he served the Romans from AD 469 on. Challenged by the magister militum praesentalis Armatus, he killed him in 477, on the orders of Zeno (Malchus, FHG 4, p. 117, fr. 8 = fr. 9,4 Blockley) [2. 411-413]. O. served as m agister militum in Illyria from 477 to 479, then changed to his brother's side and in 488 defeated the Rugians (Eugippius, Vita Severini 44,4). He was murdered in 493 after Odoacer's defeat (Io…

Pitzia

(87 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Gothic comes AD 505 [1. 886f.]. In a dispute with the Gepidae in 505, he occupied Sirmium and helped the local overlord Mundo [2. 397ff.] against troops of the Eastern Empire, defeating them (Ennod. panegyricus dictus clementissimo regi Theoderico 12; Iord. Get. 300f.) [3. 174f.]. Possibly identical to the Petia murdered in 514 by Theoderic (Theodericus (Theoderic) [3]) (Auctarium Havniense, MGH AA 9,331) [1. 861; 2. 406f.]. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2 2 P. Amory, People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 1997, 489-554 3 J. Moorhead, Theo…

Vangio

(46 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Suebian. With Sido, he deposed his uncle, Vannius , in AD 51, divided the kingdom of the Suebi with Sido and thereafter reigned in close dependency on the Roman Empire, but apparently detested by his subjects (Tac. Ann. 12,30). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)

Odoacer

(521 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Rex in Italy AD 476-493. Son of Edeco, brother of Onulf, probably born in 433 (cf. Iohannes Antiochenus, FHG 4, p. 617, fr. 209,1). O.'s family came from the circles around the court of Attila, and so it is hard to determine to which tribe they belonged [5. 124]. The number and identity of O.'s siblings is also a matter of debate ([4]; contra [2]). After the disintegration of Attila's empire (454) O.'s father and Onulf led the Sciri until 469. O.'s whereabouts during this period are uncertain; his identification with O., the leader of the Saxons, ([4. 347f.], c. 463-469 in Ga…

Totila

(405 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (Τωτίλας/ Tōtílas; alternate name Baduila, e.g. Iord. De summa temporum vel origine actibusque gentis Romanorum 380; [1. 458]). King of the Goths AD 541-552, nephew of Hildebald (Ostrogothic king 540/541), great-nephew of the Visigothic king Theudis. He commanded the Gothic troops in Tarvisium when his uncle was murdered. When Erarich's rule caused discontent among the Ostrogoths, T. decided to succeed his uncle despite negotiations with Byzantium (Procop. Goth. 3,2). In 542, he re-engaged in the war against Byzantium during the absence of Belisarius ( ibid. 3…

Thorismud

(128 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] [1] Great-grandfather of Eutharic Great-grandfather of Eutharic, Theoderic [3] the Great's designated successor (cf. Cassiod. Var. 11,1,19; Iord. Get. 81; 250 f.; 298). The family tree is probably partially an invention of Cassiodorus. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography P. Heather, Cassiodorus and the Rise of the Amals, in: JRS 79, 1989, 103-128, esp. 118-120  PLRE 2,1116. [German version] [2] King of the Visigoths, mid-5th cent. Visigoth king 451-453 AD, son of Theoderic [1]. After Theoderic's death in the battle on the Campi Catalauni …

Sigisvultus

(74 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Flavius S., under Felix [6] sent against Bonifatius [1] in Africa in 427 AD (Chron. Min. 1,472); Consul in 437, magister utriusque militiae 437-448, coastal defences against the Vandali 440 (Nov. Valentiniani 9), 448 patricius [2. 158 f.]. Often seen as rival of Aetius [2] [3. 498-500]. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 1010 2 T. D. Barnes, Patricii under Valentinian III., in: Phoenix 29, 1975, 155-170 3 B. L. Twyman, Aetius and the Aristocracy, in: Historia 19, 1970, 480-503.

Theudis

(108 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] King ( rex) in Visigoth Spain 531-548 AD, great-uncle of  Totila, probably from an influential Gothic family [2. 157 f.]. An 'arms bearer' ( armiger) of Theoderic [3] the Great, he was sent as commander-in-chief to the Visigoths c. 511, guardian of Amalaricus. T. married a well-to-do Spaniard and, with Theoderic's indulgence, exercised power in Spain (Procop. Goth. 1,12,50-54). After Amalaricus's death in 531 T. became rex, in 548 he was assassinated (Chron. Min. 2,283 f.; for the date see [4. 356]). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 P. Amory, People and…

Radagaisus

(116 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (Ῥοδογάϊσος/ Rhodogáïsos). Goth king, crossed the Danube in AD 405 and invaded Italy (Zos. 5,26,3; Oros. 7,37,4-17; [1. 206-217; 2. vol. 3,1, 200 f.]). He divided his army into three groups (Chron. min. 1,652); one may have reached Gaul [2. vol. 3,2, 22 f.]. While besieging Florence he was repelled by Stilicho (Paulinus, Vita Ambrosii, ch. 50), surrounded at Fiesole, taken prisoner and executed (23.8.406: Chron. min. 1,299). The survivors evidently defected to the Roman side [3. 213]. PLRE 2, 934. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 M. Cesa, Römisches Heer…

Tullianus

(55 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Roman landowner in Bruttium and Lucania; in AD 546 he supported the Byzantines in the reclamation of this region (Procop. Goth. 3,18,20-23). His force of armed farmers, which was supposed to prevent Totila from advancing southwards, broke up under the latter's influence, however (Procop. Goth. 3,22,1-5). PLRE 3,1344. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)

Sittas

(84 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (Σίττας, Ζτίττας/ Síttas, Z títtas; Latin also Zetas and the like: [1. 1160]). Magister utriusque militiae in AD 530-538/9; doryphóros of Iustinianus [1] even before the latter's elevation to emperor. First magister militum per Armeniam in 528 (Cod. Iust. 1,29,5; [2. 266 f.]). Married a sister of Theodora (Ioh. Mal. 430). Magister utriusque militiae praesentalis in 530-538/9; killed in an ambush in 538/9 in a battle against the Armenians (Procop. Pers. 2,3,19-26). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 3, 1160-1163 2 B. Rubin, Das Zeitalter Justini…

Theodahatus (Theodahat)

(221 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] ( Theodahadus; Θευδάτος/ Theudátos). AD 534-536 king of the Ostrogoths in Italy, from the Amali family, son of Amalafrida, nephew of Theoderic the Great (Theodericus (Theoderic) [3]); he owned large estates in Tuscia, often illegally acquired (Proc. BG 1,3,2; cf. e.g. Cassiod. Var. 4,39). After the death of Athalaric, T., who until then had pursued scholarly studies (Proc. BG 1,3,1), was appointed king by Amalasuntha, with power supposed in fact to remain with the latter (Proc. BG 1,…

Nevitta

(140 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Flavius N., of Germanic origin. In AD 358 leader of a cavalry unit in Raetia (Amm. Marc. 17,6,3), in 361 promoted by Iulianus [11] to magister equitum (Amm. Marc. 21,8,1). In 361/62 N. was part of the court in Calchedon against the supporters of Constantius [2] II (Amm. Marc. 22,3,1), and he was consul in 362 and the commander of the Persian campaign of 363 (Amm. Marc. 24,1,2). After the death of Iulianus he sided with a party of ‘Gauls’ in the conflict surrounding the succession (Amm. Marc. 25,5,2). After…

Reccared

(43 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Visigoth king 586-601 AD, son of Leowigild; in 587 he brought about the conversion of the Visigoths to Catholicism (Chron. min. 2,218). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography D. Claude, Adel, Kirche und Königtum im Westgotenreich, 1971, 77-91  PLRE 3, 1079 f.

Thraustila

(153 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] [1] Murderer of Valentinianus [4] III, 5th cent. AD Protector of Valentinianus [4] III, formerly in the service of Aetius [5]. He and Optila murdered Valentinianus in AD 455, in order to avenge the death of Aetius, probably on the instructions of Maximus [8], to whom he delivered the diadem (Iohannes Antiochenus fr. 201,4 f., FHG 4, 615; Chron. min. 1,303, where he is Aetius [2]' son-in-law; 2,86). PLRE 2,1117 f. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) [German version] [2] Magister militum, 5th cent. AD Magister militum in the Eastern empire, executed after a conspiracy aga…
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