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Paeum

(99 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Παῖον; Paîon). Small town with well-preserved acropolis wall in western Arcadia in the spring- and vegetation-rich dale lying across the Ladon and Erymanthus valleys, modern Paleokastro, 400 m to the east of modern Neon Paos. In the early period P. was an independent polis (Hdt. 6,127), later it belonged to Cleitor and in the time of Pausanias (2nd century AD) it was desolate (8,23,9). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography F. Carinci, s.v. Arcadia, EAA 2. Suppl. vol. 1, 1994, 332  M. Jost, Villages de l'Arcadie antique, in: Ktema 11 (1986), 1990, 148f.  Jost, 45  Pritchett 6, 20f.  Müller, 818f.

Mesatis

(67 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μεσάτις; Mesátis). One of three communities or regions from which the city of Patrae in Achaea was founded. M. had a cult of Dionysus. It was possibly the hilly country to the east and north of Patra…

Pyrgi

(667 words)

Author(s): Camporeale, Giovannangelo (Florence) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Πύργοι/ Pýrgoi). [German version] [1] Port of Caere This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Phoenicians, Poeni (Πύργοι/ Pýrgoi). Probably the most frequented port of ancient Caere, near modern Santa Severa. Literary evidence points to a sanctuary to Eileithyia (Str. 5,2,8) or Leucothea (Ps.-Aristot. Lin. insec. 2,1349b;  Ael. VH 1,20;  Polyaenus, Strat. 5,2,21) there, possibly identical to the remains excavated mid 20th cent. near a bay on the Tyrrhenian coast: a témenos (holy district) with two archaic temples (single cel…

Larisa

(2,121 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Et al.
(Λάρισα; Λάρισσα; Lárisa, Lárissa). Name of numerous locations in Greece and Asia Minor, cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ. [German version] [1] Acropolis of Argos The 289-…

Carnutes

(79 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Tribe living in Gallia Lugdunensis between the Seine and the Loire, neighbours of the Senones (Str. 4,2,3; 4,3,4; Tib. 1,7,12; Ptol. 2,8,10). After fierce resistance, they were conquered by Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 2-8 passim; Plin. HN 4,107; Carnuti foederati). Their most important towns were Cenabum and Autricum. It was a Carnutan tradition for their  druids to annua…

Aremorica

(43 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Caesar (B. Gall. 5,53,6; 7,75,4; 8,31,4) means by A. (from the Celtic are-mori, along the sea) the coastal territories of the tribes between  Liger and  Sequana. According to Plin. HN 4,105,  Aquitania was formerly called A. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Lutecia Parisiorum

(272 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | Wine | | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Oppidum (Caes. B Gall. 6,3,4; 7,57f.; Λουκοτοκία; Loukotokía, Str. 4,3,5; Παρισίων Λουκοτεκία; Parisíōn Loukotekía, Ptol. 2,8,13; Luticia, It. Ant. 366,5f.; Luteci, Tab. Peut. 2,4). Settlement founded in c. 250-200 BC on an island in the Sequana (Seine), where a north-south trading route crosses the river, modern Paris. The river afforded natural protection while the nearby hill of Sainte-Geneviève enabled direct sur…

Noviomagus

(1,862 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] [1] City of the Bituriges Vivisci in Aquitania The city of the Bituriges Vivisci (Βίτουργες Οὐβίσκοι/ Bítourges Oubískoi) in Aquitania mentioned in Ptol. 2,7,7 (Νουιόμαγος/ Nouiómagos) is generally identified with a Roman vicus near Brion (Saint-Germain-d'Esteuil) in the Médoc between Lesparre and Pauillac ( département of Gironde). This town with an ancient sanctuary of the Medulli had been inhabited from the 3rd cent. BC; urban development is recognisable from the time of Claudius (41-54 AD). It was in this period that the fanum (sanctuary) and the theatre were erected. After a period of prosperity N. became depopulated (by emigration) from the middle of the 2nd cent. AD. Only the fanum was used, as a resid…

Cenchreae

(357 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Κεγχρεαί; Kenchreaí). [German version] [1] Settlement en route from Argos to Tegea This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Macedonia, Macedones Settlement en route from Argos to Tegea with graves of Argives fallen in the battle at the nearby Hysiae (according to Pausanias in 669/8 BC). C. was on the northern slope of Mount Ctenias opposite Hysiae on the southern side. Not exactly localizable, possibly near the modern Sta Nera, c. 3 km north-east of Achladokambos. The ‘Pyramid of C.’ at the exit of the valley further towards the north-east above t…

Sicyon

(827 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Lafond
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars (Σικυών; Sikyṓn). [German version] I. Site Port on the Gulf of Corinth, 26 km to the west of Corinth. Its territory was confined to the east by the river Nemea [2] (border with Corinth), to the west by the river Sythas (border with Pellene) (Paus. 7,27,12). S. was famous as early as Antiquity for the fertility of the valley and for the highlands of Neogene marl. In the Arc…

Arausio

(185 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Aulerci

(144 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] A people in Gallia Celtica, later Lugdunensis, between the Loire and the Seine, that was divided into four partial tribes (Caes. B Gall. 3,17; 7,75; Plin. HN 4,107; Ptol.Geog. 2,8): 1. The Cenomani who partly moved to Upper Italy (Liv. 5,35,1) and partly settled around Subdinum (today Le Mans) where they worshipped Mars Mullo [1. 343-348]. 2. The Diablintes/Diablinti, their main settlement was Noviodunum [2. 454-463; 3]. It was not Caesar but probably Ptolemy (Geog. 2,8,7) who cla…

Lessa

(61 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λῆσσα; Lêssa). Village on the Argolian Acte on the border to Epidaurus, presumably near modern Ligurio, with Athena sanctuary. Literary evidence: Paus. 2,25,10; 26,1. Inscriptions: IG IV, 906-912; 1611. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography A. Frickenhaus…

Andecavi

(89 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Tribe in  Gallia Lugdunensis (on the lower Loire) with the main town of Iuliomagus (modern Angers sur la Maine; Caes. B Gall. 2,35,3; 3,7,2; 7,4,6: Andes; Plin. HN 4,107 and Oros. 6,8,7: Andicavi). In the Gallic rebellion of AD 21 under the leadership of  Iulius Sacrovir, they were the first to fight, together with the  Turoni, but were soon overpowered (Tac. Ann. 3,41). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography M. Blanchard-Lemée et al., Recueil général des mosaïques de Gaule 2,4, 1991 M. Provost, Le Val de Loire dans l'Antiquité, 1993.

Geronthrae

(136 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea (Γερόνθραι; Gerónthrai). Spartan perioikoi town on the western edge of the Parnon above the Eurotas valley, later part of the league of the  Eleutherolakones, near modern Geraki, still inhabited in the Imperial period and thus even named in Hierocles (Synekdemos 647,9). Paus. 3,22,6f. mentions a temple of Ares with a grove, an agora with a fountain house and a temple of Apollo on the acropolis. Further evidence: Steph. Byz. s.v. Γεράνθραι; Geránthrai; IG V 1, 1110-1141. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliogr…

Helvii

(140 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] ( Elvii, Elvi or Ilvi, Caes. B Civ. 1,35; Ἑλουοί, Str. 4,2,1). Celtic tribe of people whose area (modern Dép. Ardèche) on the right bank of the Rhône in the north bordered on the Segusiavi, in the west on the Vellavii and Gabali and in the south on the Volcae Arecomici. The Cevennes separated them from the Arverni (Caes. B Gall. 7,8). In 52 BC in the war against Vercingetorix they were on the side of Caesar. In the new division of the province under Augustus they were attached to Aqui…

Boiae

(79 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Βοιαί; Boiaí). One of the most prosperous cities of the  Eleutherolakones on the western coast of the Parnon peninsula in the bay of Vatica. Unremarkable archaeological ruins (especially from the Roman period) at today's Neapolis. Pol. 5,19; Str. 8,5,2; Paus. 3,22,11-13. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography J. Christien, Promenades en Laconie, in: DHA 15,1, 1989, 89-93 D. Musti, M. Torelli, Pausania Guida della Grecia. III. La Laconia, 1991, 270f.

Olympus

(2,377 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ὄλυμπος/Ólympos). Geography: [1-13]. People: [14-15]. [German version] [1] Home of the ›Olympian‹ gods, highest mountain in Greece (Latin Olympus) (Latin Olympus). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) [German version] I. Geography The highest mountain in Greece, regarded as the home of the 'Olympian' gods (twelve (Olympian) gods). Its altitude, overlooking all of its surroundings, creates a powerful impression, as do its massive size and density and its dramatic ascent, especially at the east and west, which …

Esuvii

(49 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Esubii). Tribe in Gallia Celtica, later Lugdunensis, between the lower Seine and the Loire. Caesar (Gall. 2,34; 3,7; 5,24; 5,53) mentions it as one of the tribes of Aremorica (Bretagne) between the Coriosolites and the Aulerci in the area of Sées (Orne). Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Cyparissia

(301 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Κυπαρισσία; Kyparissía). [German version] [1] Town on the Messenian west coast This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea Town on the Messenian west coast and the location of the modern town of the same name with a few remains mostly from Roman times; parts of the wall of the acropolis below a medieval castle. Aside from Pylos and Methone, the harbour of C. with its good connection to the upper Pamisus Valley was considered the only significant Messenian access to the sea. C. is already mentioned in the Pylos Tablets and is in any case identical to Κυπαρισσήεις ( Kypar…
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