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1.1.1.1 Jewish Scholarship

(10,538 words)

Author(s): Lange, Armin
Part of 1 History of Research - 1.1 Hebrew and Greek Texts in Judaism and Christianity - 1.1.1 Antiquity and Late AntiquityTo write a history of research on ancient and late ancient Jewish textcritical scholarship has to overcome many obstacles. To my knowledge no survey like this has yet been done and even Jewish textcritical scholarship of that period is under-researched. No philological or other treatises about critical research investigating the Hebrew, Aramaic, or Greek texts of the Jewish scriptures are preserved from antiquity or late antiquity.Despite these problems, bot…
Date: 2020-10-05

Introduction to the Textual History of the Bible

(2,656 words)

Author(s): Lange, Armin
Manuscript finds such as the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Cairo Genizah manuscripts, the discoveries at Nag Hammadi, and many more have radically changed our knowledge of the textual history of the Jewish and Christian Bibles. These new insights have led to several noticeable paradigm shifts in the field of textual criticism. Textual witnesses are no longer regarded as quarries for textual variants but are studied as texts and traditions in their own right. For instance, the study of the Septuagint is …
Date: 2020-10-01

14.2.3 Other Texts

(1,920 words)

Author(s): Lange, Armin
Part of 14 Canticles - 14.2 Ancient Hebrew TextsOf the four ancient Hebrew Canticles manuscripts found at Qumran (14.2.1) only two do not align with mt-Cant (4QCanta and 4QCantb; 14.2.2). 4QCantb developed out of mt-Cant, while 4QCanta is an abbreviated version of a forerunner of mt-Cant. 4QCantc and 6QCant are too badly damaged for text-typological and textual characterization. 14.2.3.1 Text of 4QCanta (4Q106)The text of 4QCanta (14.2.1.1) is difficult to characterize. Most if not all of the manuscript’s secondary readings represent intentional changes intro…
Date: 2020-03-17

13.2.3 Other Texts

(1,203 words)

Author(s): Lange, Armin
Part of 13 Ruth - 13.2 Ancient Hebrew TextsAs detailed in 13.2.1, 2QRuthb (13.2.1.1) and 4QRuthb (13.2.1.4) are too damaged to allow for orthographic and text-typological classifications and neither do they allow for an overall textual characterization of the texts of Ruth to which they attest. Nevertheless, they include a number of non-aligned readings that warrant discussion.13.2.3.1 2QRuthb (2Q17)The twenty-six preserved words of 2QRuthb (13.2.1.2) allow neither for a text-typological classification nor for a textual characterization. Nevertheless, this …
Date: 2020-03-17

14.2.1 Ancient Manuscript Evidence

(1,366 words)

Author(s): Lange, Armin
Part of 14 Canticles - 14.2 Ancient Hebrew TextsFour damaged manuscripts of Canticles survive from antiquity. All four manuscripts were found in Caves 4 and 6 at Qumran. Two scrolls attest to non-aligned texts of Canticles (4QCanta and 4QCantb) while the other two scrolls are too damaged for textual classification (4QCantc and 6QCant). 4QCantc could even represent a quotation from Canticles in a non-biblical text. 14.2.1.1 4QCanta (4Q106)Of the six extant fragments of 4QCanta, frgs. 1–5 were part of three consecutive columns of the original scroll. 4QCanta attests to remnants of …
Date: 2020-03-17

12.2.1 Ancient Manuscript Evidence

(1,233 words)

Author(s): Lange, Armin
Part of 12 Proverbs - 12.2 Ancient Hebrew TextsThree, four, or five ancient manuscripts are preserved of the book of Proverbs. All were found in the Qumran caves. 12.2.1.1 4QProva (4Q102)Of 4QProva, two frgs. are extant that attest to forty-two partly or completely preserved words from Prov 1:27–2:1. In principal, such a small passage could also be a quotation from Proverbs in a nonbiblical book. However, as Prov 2:1 begins a new instruction, it is more likely that 4Q102 is a Proverbs manuscript than one that merely preserves…
Date: 2020-03-17

13.2.1 Ancient Manuscript Evidence

(993 words)

Author(s): Lange, Armin
Part of 13 Ruth - 13.2 Ancient Hebrew TextsFive Hebrew Ruth manuscripts are preserved from antiquity among the manuscripts from Qumran caves 2 and 4. Extensive damages make the texttypological classification for all five manuscripts difficult, if not impossible. 13.2.1.1 2QRutha (2Q16)The eight heavily damaged frgs. of 2QRutha can be identified as cols. ix–xiii (frgs. 1–7) and xvi (frg. 8) of the original scroll. They attest to remnants of Ruth 2:13–3:8 and 4:3–4. Paleographically, 2QRutha resembles the early Herodian formal hands of 1QpHab and 4QDeutj (4Q37) and thus can be da…
Date: 2020-03-17

5.3.1 Ancient and Late Ancient Manuscript Evidence

(9,333 words)

Author(s): Lange, Armin
Part of 5 Samuel–Kings - 5.3 Ancient Hebrew TextsAlthough none of the Samuel–Kings manuscripts from Qumran include both the books of Samuel and Kings, the material reconstruction of 4QSama and 4QKgs makes it likely that these scrolls once included more than only the books of Samuel or Kings respectively. Furthermore, lxx regards the four books as one literary work divided into four parts (βασιλειων α-δʹ, 1–4 Kingdoms). For both reasons, 1–2 Samuel and 1–2 Kings are discussed together in this entry.Eleven ancient manuscripts of 1 Samuel–2 Kings have been published. The id…
Date: 2020-03-17

15.2.3 Other Texts

(1,751 words)

Author(s): Lange, Armin
Part of 15 Qohelet - 15.2 Ancient Hebrew TextsBesides mt-Qoh (15.2.2), only two further textual witnesses to the book of Qohelet are known in Hebrew, i.e. 4QQoha (4Q109) and 4QQohb (4Q110).1 They will be discussed below. 15.2.3.1 4QQoha (4Q109)Although 4QQoha was published already in 1954, the Qohelet text it attests to did not spark extensive discussion. Its text-typological classification as non-aligned is discussed above, 15.2.1. In addition to this characterization, Muilenburg’s hope that several variants “are strong enough to su…
Date: 2020-03-17

18.2.1 Ancient Manuscript Evidence

(3,084 words)

Author(s): Lange, Armin
Part of 18 Daniel - 18.2 Ancient Hebrew-Aramaic TextsEight ancient Hebrew/Aramaic manuscripts of the book of Daniel from the Qumran library have been published.1 Of these manuscripts, the text of 1QDanb and 4QDand is semi-Masoretic, while the text of 4QDana, 4QDanb, and 4QDanc is non-aligned in character. 4QDana and 4QDanb even stand in the same non-aligned textual tradition. Due to material damages, the text-typological classification of 1QDana, 4QDane, and 6QpapDan is impossible. 4QDane most likely represents an excerpted Daniel text that included only Dan 9:4b–19…
Date: 2020-03-17

7.2.1 Ancient Manuscript Evidence

(2,803 words)

Author(s): Lange, Armin
Part of 7 Jeremiah - 7.2 Ancient Hebrew-Aramaic TextsThe only complete witness to a Hebrew text of the book of Jeremiah that goes back to antiquity is the consonantal text of mt-Jer (see 7.2.2 for the most important mt-Jer manuscripts). The published ancient Hebrew manuscripts of Jeremiah were all found in the Qumran caves. Their classification into non-aligned, proto-, or semi-Masoretic manuscripts and texts attesting to the Hebrew Vorlage of lxx (for this system of classification, see 1.2.2.2.3 and 1.2.1) is facilitated somewhat in the case of the book of Jeremi…
Date: 2020-03-17

7.2.2 Masoretic Texts and Ancient Texts Close to mt

(12,545 words)

Author(s): Lange, Armin
Part of 7 Jeremiah - 7.2 Ancient Hebrew-Aramaic TextsIn addition to the proto- (4QJera7.2.1.2) and semi-Masoretic (2QJer 7.2.1.1; 4QJerc7.2.1.4) Jeremiah manuscripts discussed above, only the medieval Masoretic manuscripts attest to this textual version of the book of Jeremiah. Qumran manuscripts are discussed in entry 7.2.1. The medieval manuscripts are discussed in 7.2.2.5.The text of mt-Jer is radically different from the Greek version (7.3) of this book. It follows a different textual sequence than lxx-Jer (see below, 7.2.2.2.2) and is significantly longer. Accor…
Date: 2020-03-17

7.2.3 Other Texts

(4,218 words)

Author(s): Lange, Armin
Part of 7 Jeremiah - 7.2 Ancient Hebrew-Aramaic TextsMy text-typological assessment in 7.2.1 demonstrated that in its final text 4QJera attests to a proto-Masoretic Jeremiah text and that 2QJer and 4QJerc are witnesses of semi-Masoretic Jeremiah texts. Based on variant statistics, I have further argued that 4QJerd,e and ms Schøyen 4612/9 are too damaged for text-typological classification, while it is doubtful whether XJer? attests to the book of Jeremiah at all. Based on its textual sequence and repertoire, I classified 4QJerb as attesting to the Hebrew parent text of lxx-Jer. Abov…
Date: 2020-03-17

20.2.1 Ancient Manuscript Evidence

(531 words)

Author(s): Lange, Armin
Part of 20 1–2 Chronicles - 20.2 Ancient Hebrew TextsThe only extant ancient manuscript of 1–2 Chronicles is the extensively damaged scroll 4QChr (4Q118).1 Containing parts of two columns, the surviving fragment of 4QChr attests to remnants of 2 Chr 28:27–29:3. 4QChr was written in a late Hasmonean book hand between 50–25 b.c.e.2 The orthography of the preserved text of 4QChr corresponds to the orthographic system of mt.3 While the text of col. ii can still be attributed to 2 Chr 28:27–29:3, the text of col. i (ת֯י ותעלנ֯י[ “… and you led me up”) does not correspond to any p…
Date: 2020-03-17

4.2.1 Ancient Manuscript Evidence

(2,058 words)

Author(s): Lange, Armin
Part of 4 Judges - 4.2 Ancient Hebrew TextsFour Hebrew manuscripts of the book of Judges survive from antiquity. 1QJudg, 4QJudga, and 4QJudgb were found at Qumran, while XJudg comes from one of the sites around the Dead Sea connected with the Second Jewish War. 4.2.1.1 1QJudg (1Q6)Forty heavily damaged fragments of 1QJudg (4.2.3.1) survive, of which thirty-one fragments can still be identified.1 The identifiable fragments of 1QJudg attest to remnants of Judg 1:12–13; 3:8; 5:15–16; 6:15–16, 20–22, 25–26, 39–40?; 9:1–6, 28–35, 38, 40–44, 48–49; 10:7–9; 11:19…
Date: 2020-03-17

1.2.2 Ancient and Late Ancient Hebrew and Aramaic Jewish Texts

(34,957 words)

Author(s): Lange, Armin
Part of 1 Overview Articles - 1.2 Ancient Hebrew-Aramaic TextsUntil the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Hebrew text of the Hebrew Bible was almost exclusively known through the medieval Masoretic text (1.2.1). Only the Nash Papyrus (2.2.5.2), the Severus Scroll variant list (2.2.5.4), the variant readings attributed to Rabbi Meir,1 and biblical quotations in the ancient Jewish (1.6; 1.7.1) and rabbinic literature (21.6) provided rare insights into the ancient and late ancient history of the Hebrew text of the Bible. In addition, precious …
Date: 2020-03-17

14.2.2 Masoretic Texts and Ancient Texts Close to mt

(2,052 words)

Author(s): Lange, Armin
Part of 14 Canticles - 14.2 Ancient Hebrew TextsThe only complete Hebrew text of Canticles is mt-Cant. It is also the only textual witness to the (proto)-Masoretic text of Canticles. Of the four Canticles manuscripts from Qumran, 4QCanta and 4QCantb are non-aligned in character while 4QCantc and 6QCant are too damaged for text-typological classification (14.2.1). The text of 4QCantb (14.2.3.2) as well as the texts of the ancient versions all developed out of mt-Cant, while 4QCanta preserves an abbreviated version of a textual predecessor of mt-Cant (14.2.3.1).14.2.2.1 History of …
Date: 2020-03-17

8.2.1 Ancient Manuscript Evidence

(1,785 words)

Author(s): Lange, Armin
Part of 8 Ezekiel - 8.2 Ancient Hebrew TextsSeven ancient manuscripts with remnants of the book of Ezekiel have been published. A further possible Ezekiel fragment from the Dead Sea Scrolls with remnants of Ezek 28:22 is part of the Green Collection (Inv. motb.scr.003174 = gc 6 = dss f.Ezek1).1 Six of the published manuscripts were found in various caves around Qumran and one on the Masada fortress. 3QEzek and 4QEzekc could also attest to an Ezekiel quotation in a non-biblical text and 4QEzekb did not contain the whole text of Ezekiel. The small amount of text preserved in 1Q…
Date: 2020-03-17

3.2.1 Ancient Manuscript Evidence

(1,893 words)

Author(s): Lange, Armin
Part of 3 Joshua - 3.2 Ancient Hebrew TextsThree Hebrew manuscripts of the book of Joshua survive from antiquity. 4QJosha and 4QJoshb were found at Qumran, while XJosh comes most likely from one of the sites connected with the Second Jewish War. Of these three Joshua manuscripts, the text of 4QJosha is non-aligned, while the text of 4QJoshb can be characterized as semi-Masoretic and the text of XJosh as proto-Masoretic. For 4Qpaleo paraJosh, it remains uncertain whether it attests to a variant literary edition of the book of Joshua or, more likely, to a rewriting of that book.1 3.2.1.1 4QJos…
Date: 2020-03-17

Introduction to the Textual History of the Bible

(2,481 words)

Author(s): Lange, Armin
Manuscript finds such as the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Cairo Genizah manuscripts, the discoveries at Nag Hammadi, and many more have radically changed our knowledge of the textual history of the Jewish and Christian Bibles. These new insights have led to several noticeable paradigm shifts in the field of textual criticism. Textual witnesses are no longer regarded as quarries for textual variants but are studied as texts and traditions in their own right. For instance, the study of the Septuagint is …
Date: 2020-03-17
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