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Sciritis

(115 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Σκιρῖτις; Skirîtis). Northern border region of Laconia (Thuc. 5,33,2) between the eastern Arcadian and Spartan basins, in the north about 13 km wide and in the south about 4 km, a slate region of the northwestern slopes of the northern Parnon mountains without any larger settlements. It was originally counted as part of Arcadia (Steph. Byz. s. v. Σκίρος). In the 5th cent. BC the Sciritae had the status of Spartan períoikoi . In 369 BC it was annexed to Megale polis (Xen. Hell. 6,5,24 ff.; 7,4,21; Diod. Sic. 15,64,3 ff.; Syll.3 665,31 f. from 164 BC). Lienau, Cay (Münst…

Ophis

(63 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Ὄφις/ Óphis). River on the plain of Mantinea that originally flowed through the city; when the city was reestablished in 370 BC it was diverted to flow around it (Paus. 8,8,4; 7; Xen. Hell. 5,2,4f.; Diod. Sic. 15,12,1) and into the Katavothras at the western edge of the plain. Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. O. (1), RE 18, 649.

Mathia

(26 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Μαθία). Chain of mountains above Corone in Messenia (Paus. 4,34,4), modern Likodimo. Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. M., RE 14, 2195.

Parthenias

(41 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Παρθενίας/ Parthenías). Right-bank tributary of the Alpheius [1], rising from the lower slopes of the Foloi, debouching east of Olympia; the present-day Bakireïko. Sources: Str. 8,3,32; Paus. 6,21,7. Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. P., RE 18.4, 1886.

Menius

(58 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Μήνιος; Mḗnios). A small tributary of the Peneius in the territory of the city of Elis, which Hercules was said to have diverted in order to clean the stables of Augias. It cannot be identified with certainty as a tributary of the modern Revmata. Attested in Paus. 5,1,10; 6,26,1; Theoc. 25,15. Lienau, Cay (Münster)

Gerania

(283 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Γεράνεια; Geráneia). Mountain range formed primarily by lime and dolomites of the Trias and the Lower Jura as well as (in the west) by ophiolites (serpentinites), reaching across today's Nomos boundary between Attica and Corinth. In the west, it flattens out in Akron Melankavi (and Akron Heraion) into the Gulf of Corinth; in the east, it drops off steeply to the Gulf of Megara (part of the Saronic Gulf), forming the Scironian Cliffs. In Makriplagi, at the border between Attica and…

Minthe

(61 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] [1] Mountain range in Triphylia (Μίνθη; Mínthē). Mountain range in Triphylia, 1344 m high, composed of chalk, modern Alivaina. Traces of a sacrificial site on its peak; Str. 8,3,14 mentions sanctuaries of Hades and Demeter on the slopes. Cf. Ptol. 3,14,35. Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. M., RE 15, 1934. [German version] [2] see Mint see Mint

Oligyrtus

(64 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Ὀλίγυρτος; Olígyrtos). Mountain range in north-eastern Arcadia (Pol. 4,11,5; 70,1; Plut. Cleomenes 26,3), whose highest mountain is Skipiza (1934 m); it is the meeting-point of the borders of Argolid, Corinthus and Arcadia. Important crossings from the plateau of Orchomenus [3] and Caphyae to Stymphalus and Phlius. Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. Oligyrtos, RE 17, 2477-2479  Id., Peloponnesische Wanderungen, 1939, 276f.

Aroania ore

(41 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Ἀροάνια ὄρη; Aroánia órē). Massif (highest peak: Helmos, 2341 m) in northern  Arcadia between Erymathus and Cyllene; for the role of Aroania ore in the legend of the Protides, see  Proetus (Paus. 8,18,7). Lienau, Cay (Münster)

Parnon

(149 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (ὁ Πάρνων; ho Párnō n), modern term for the entire chain of mountains east of Laconice, which runs from the high plain of Tegea in the P. Peninsula and tapers out far to the south at Cape Malea [1]. P. is attested only once in Antiquity, and only in its northernmost part, the modern Malevo (1935 m elevation), and its northern continuation, over which the road from Argos to Tegea led, with the border region between Arcadia, Argos and Sparta (Paus. 2,38,7). The entire southern continuat…

Arachnaeum

(80 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Ἀραχναῖον; Arachmaîon). Bleak range of limestone mountains, running east to west between the plain of  Argos [II 1] and  Epidaurus; highest peak nowadays called Profitis Elias (1199 m), with altars to  Zeus and  Hera (Paus. 2,25,10). Named in Aesch. Ag. 309 as the site of the last beacon for the signals from Troy. Other names for A. (literally ‘spider mountains’) in Paus. loc. cit. (Sapyselaton) and Hsch. s. v. Hysselinon. Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 3, 1, 1959,97 f.

Lusius [I]

(56 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Λούσιος; Loúsios). This northern tributary of the Alpheius [1], whose source is associated with the legend of the birth of Zeus, rises near Dimitsana. According to Paus. 8,28,2f., in its lower reaches it was called Gortynius; cf. Pol. 16,17,7. Modern Dimitsana. Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. L., RE 13, 1867.

Lycaeum

(426 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Λύκαιον; Lýkaion). In the broad sense, the entire mountain mass consisting of various limestones west of the plateau of Megale Polis in Parrhasia (Paus. 8,2,1; 38,2ff.; 4,20,2; 8,41,3; Str. 8,3,22; Paus. 8,2,1; Thuc. 5,54,1). Polybius reckoned the L. to be among the largest mountain ranges of Greece (in Str. 4,6,12; ὤρεα μακρά in Theoc. 1,123). The L. mountain range in antiquity was rich in springs and forests; today it still has extensive fir forests (Paus. 8,38,3f.). It was fam…

Erymanthus

(168 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
(Ἐρύμανθος; Erýmanthos). [German version] [1] Mountain ridge in the north west Pelopponese A mountain range extending up to 2,224 m in height and consisting of several chains stretching north-east to south-west; located in the north-western Peloponnese in the border area between  Elis and  Achaea, the earlier north-western mountain border of  Arcadia. Composed of layers of limestone, it drops away sharply for over 25 km in the north-west towards the flysch hills of Voundoukia; today also Olonos. The setting…

Hira

(70 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Ἱρή/ Hirḗ, Ἰρή/ Irḗ, Εἶρα/ Eîra). Mountain stronghold in the inaccessible ravined area in the south of the upper Neda on the northern border of Messenia, possibly on the 864 m high Hagios Athanasios near Kakaletri (traces of ancient fortifications).  Aristomenes [1] led the battle against the Spartans from here in 500-490/489 BC (Third Messenian War). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 3,2, 357 F. Kiechle, Messenische Studien, 1959, 86ff.

Issorium

(48 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Ἰσσώριον; Issṓrion). Hill on the northern city border of Sparta, with a sanctuary to Artemis Issoria (Plut. Agesilaus 32,3; Polyaenus, Strat. 2,1,14; Nep. Agesilaus 6,2), possibly the heights known today as Klaraki. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. Sparta, RE 3A, 1350ff.

Denthalii

(96 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Δενθάλιοι; Denthálioi). Laconian border region near Messenia on the western slope of the northern Taygetus around the source of the Nedon, with a sanctuary of Artemis Limnatis, contested by Sparta and Messenia and finally granted to Messenia by Tiberius (Steph. Byz. s.v. D.; Tac. Ann. 4,43; Paus. 4,4,2; 31,3). Inscription: IG V 1 p. 260f. no. 1371-1378. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography L. Roß, Reisen im Peloponnes, 1841, 1ff. F. Bölte, s.v. D., RE 3A, 1312, 67ff. N. Valmin, Études topographiques sur la Messénie ancienne, 19…

Arcadians, Arcadia

(879 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
(Ἀρκάδες, Ἀρκαδία; Arkádes, Arkadía). [German version] A. Geography Central inland mountainous region of the  Peloponnese with a mean height of 500 m above sea level. The borders of ancient A. are not identical with those of the modern nomos Arkadia with its chief place of Tripolis (founded in the 14th cent. AD, Turkish name: Tripolitsa). To the north, A. extended to the massifs of  Cyllene (Ziria, 2376 m), Oroania (Chelmos, 2355 m), and  Erymanthus (Olonos, 2224 m); in the south-west, the sanctuary of …

Oenus

(113 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Οἰνοῦς/ Oinoûs). [German version] [1] Left-hand tributary of the Eurotas in Laconia Left-hand tributary of the Eurotas in Laconia, again called Inous today (previously Kelefina; cf. Pol. 2,65,7ff.; 66,7; Liv. 34,28,1). Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. O. (1), RE 17, 2280f. [German version] [2] Spartan perioikoi community Spartan community of períoikoi of unknown location; mentioned by Alcm. fr. 92d because of its wine (also Ath. 1,31cd; Steph. Byz. s.v. Οἰνοῦς); decree of proxenia by Argos for a οινόντιος [1]. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 P. Charneux, I…

Artemisium

(188 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
(Ἀρτεμίσιον; Artemísion). [German version] [1] Coastal strip of Euboia facing Magnesia A. was probably the ancient name for the entire coastal strip of  Euboea facing the  Magnesia peninsula (Plin. HN 4,64). Close to the modern village of Artemision, above the bay of Pevki, are the remains of a small temple of Artemis ‘facing towards the east’ (Proseoa), which as an amphictyonic sanctuary also formed the cultural centre of the region around  Histiaea. The famous bronze statue of Poseidon (nowadays in the N…
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