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III. Israel and Judah

(1,198 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger
No secure dates can be given for the chronology of the Pre-Monarchic Period and the beginnings of the monarchy. For the reigns of the kings of Judah and Israel narrower variations are still possible, since it is unclear what the effects of coregencies (2 Kg 15:1f., 5, 7, 32f., 38) and rival kings (1 Kg 16:21f., 23, 28) were, whether ante- or post- dating was used (i.e. including or excluding the accession year), or where the year’s beginning should be situated (in Fall or in Spring). The dates f…

III. Israel und Juda

(1,069 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger
Für die vormonarchische Zeit und die Anfänge des Königtums können keine einigermaßen sicheren chronologischen Angaben gemacht werden. Bei den Regierungszeiten der Könige von Juda und Israel sind evtl. kleinere Abweichungen möglich, denn es ist nicht klar, wie Koregentschaft (2 Kg 15,1 f., 5, 7, 32 f., 38) und Rivalkönigtum (1 Kg 16,21 f., 23, 28) berücksichtigt wurden, ob man vor- oder nachdatierend rechnete und wann das Jahr begann (im Herbst oder im Frühjahr). Die Daten bis zum Babylonischen E…


(113 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger
[English version] (Ζεβέκη). Iosephos [4] Flavios nennt Z. als Ort des in Ri 1,1-7 erwähnten Kampfes der Stämme Juda und Simeon gegen Kanaanäer unter Führung von Adoni-Zebek (Ios. ant. Iud. 5,121: Ἀδωνιζέβεκος). Der hebr. Text in Ri 1,4 f. hat die Namensformen Bȧzȧq bzw. Adonī-Bȧzȧq (in Hss. der Iosephos-Überl. ist z. T. zu Βεζέκη/ Bezékē korrigiert). Der Text von Ri 1 erschließt den ON aus dem PN Adonī-Bȧzȧq und sucht ihn in der Nähe von Jerusalem (vgl. Ri 1,7). Bȧzȧq ist nach 1 Sam 11,8 Ort der Musterung von Sauls Heerbann und ist mit Ḫirbat I…


(82 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger
[English version] (Ζιφηνή). Mit Z. bezeichnet Iosephos [4] Flavios (Ios. ant. Iud. 6,275; 277) die Steppe von Zīf (1 Sam 23,14 f.; 26,2). In jener Gegend, die nahe der at. Stadt Zīf (Jos 15,55, h. Tall Zīf, 6 km südl. von Hebron) lag, versteckte sich David [1] auf der Flucht vor Saul (1 Sam 23,24-28, vgl. Ps 54,2), dessen Leben er bei einer nächtlichen Aktion nach einer legendären Erzählung (1 Sam 26,1-25) aus Respekt vor dem Königsamt (“Gesalbter”) unangetastet ließ. Liwak, Rüdiger


(211 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Theatre | Zenobia | Hasmonaeans (Besan). 25 km south of Lake Galilee (Lake Tiberias) on the Tall al-Ḥiṣn; the ancient city was settled from Chalcolithic time to the Crusades. The Arabic name is derived from the Hebrew bēt-šean (Egyptian btsr, Cuneiform script Bı̄tšāni). Owing to its strategic and economic significance, B. became a military and administrative centre for Egyptian Asian policy from the 15th cent. to the middle of the 12th cent. BC. It was the only city in Israel to…


(151 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[German version] (Ῥαφία/ Rhaphía, Egyptian Rpḥ, Akkadian Rapiḫu). First mentioned in Egyptian city lists of the 2nd millennium BC, to be found southeast of Gaza in Ḫirbat Bir Rafaḥ. The first dispute between the Assyrians and Egyptians took place here when Ḫanūnu of Gaza with Egyptian support unsuccessfully fought against Sargon [3] II in 720 BC. In 217 BC in R., Ptolemy [7] IV Philopator was victorious over Antiochus [5] III (Pol. 5,82-86; 3 Macc 1:4). The latter established Seleucid rule in 200 BC and in 193 BC through …


(134 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[German version] The village of Dhiban, 4 km north of the Arnon, has retained the name of the nearby Dibon of antiquity, one claimed by two of the Israelite tribes: Gad (Num. 32,34) and Ruben (Josh. 13,17). A stele, the Moabite Stone, with an inscription of Mesha king of Moab (TUAT 1, 646-650; cf. 2 Kg. 3,4), was found here in 1868, confirming it as Moabite from the 9th cent. BC (Num. 21,30; Isa. 15,2; Jer. 48,18; 22). Apart from some remains of the Early Bronze Age, excavations revealed an Iron …


(942 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Writing | Syria | Christianity | Zenobia | Coloniae | Diadochi and Epigoni | Alexander | Commerce | Hasmonaeans | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Mesopotamia | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Rome | Aegean Koine (Tyre. Phoenician, Ugaritic ṣr; Egyptian Ḏwr, Dr; Akkadian Ṣurru; Hebrew Ṣor; Greek ἡ Τύρος/ hē Týros; Latin Tyrus, feminine; Arabic Ṣūr) was a Phoenician island city that was connected to the mainland when Alexander [4] the Great had a causeway built for its conques…


(518 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[German version] (Hebrew plištīm; LXX Φιλιστιείμ/ Philistieím, Gn 10:14 et alibi; Ἀλλόφυλοι/ Allóphyloi, 1 Chr 14:10 et alibi; Vulgate Philistim). In the Old Testament the inhabitants of a pentapolis with the cities of Gaza, Ascalon, Ashdod, Ekron and Gath in the southern coastal plain east of the Mediterranean Sea (Palaestina). They are attested for the first time as prst/ pw-r-s­-ṯ in the context of a sea and land battle in 1177 BC in inscriptions and reliefs from the mortuary temple of Ramesses III in Madinat Hābū (western Thebes) along with other…


(201 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[German version] Arabic, ‘steep track’, situated at the north-eastern end of the gulf of the same name, first mentioned by medieval geographers as aqabat ayla (steep track of Aila). Aila, 1 km north of the place today known as Aqaba, was, in the Nabataean-Roman-Byzantine era, the name of the settlement replacing the OT Elat. In 1 Kg 9,26-28 the Edomite city of Elat/A. serves as the topographical approximation for the site of the port Ezjon-Geber, from where King Solomon is supposed to have condu…


(132 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[German version] (Ζεβέκη/ Zebékē). Josephus [4] Flavius mentions Z. as the place of a battle mentioned in Judges 1:1-7 between the tribes of Judah and Simeon on the one hand and the Canaanites, led by Adoni-Zebek (Jos. Ant. Iud. 5,121: Ἀδωνιζέβεκος/ Adōnizébekos), on the other. The Hebrew form of the name in Judges 1:4f. is Bȧzȧq or Adonī-Bȧzȧq (in manuscripts of the Josephus tradition, 'Zebeke' is sometimes corrected to Βεζέκη/ Bezékē). The text of Judges 1 derives the place name from the personal name Adonī-Bȧzȧq and places it near Jerusalem (cf. Judges 1:7). …


(91 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[German version] (Ζιφηνή/ Ziphēnḗ). Z. is the term used by Iosephus [4] Flavius (Jos. Ant. Iud. 6,275; 277) for the wilderness of Zīph (1 Sam 23:14 f.; 26,2). In that area situated near the OT city of Zīph (Jos 15,55, modern Tall Zīf, 6 km to the south of Hebron), David [1] hid while fleeing from Saul (1 Sam 23:24-28, cf. Ps 54:2) whose life he left unassailed in a nocturnal action, according to a legendary story (1 Sam 26:1-25) out of respect for his kingship ('The Anointed One'). Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)

Beth Shemesh

(149 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[German version] The Hebrew (Sam. 1 6; Kgs 2 14,11) term (‘house of the sun’) probably refers to veneration of the sun god (Jos. 19,41). The name is preserved in the Arab village Ain Šams (‘source of the sun’) that earlier lay east of Tall ar-Rumaila (‘the sandy ground’), with which the ancient Beth Shemesh (BS) is to be identified. 20 km west of Jerusalem, BS had a geographically advantageous and trade-oriented location. After settlement in the middle of the Bronze Age, the place enjoyed an initial intercultural upsurge in the late Bronz…


(206 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Phoenicians, Poeni | Aegean Koine (Tall al-Mutasallim in the Plain of Jesreel) was settled from the Neolithic until the Persian period (6th-4th millennia BC). Archaeological finds include temples, palaces and installations for water supply, as well as worked ivory and a clay tablet fragment of the Epic of Gilgamesh (14th century BC). M. (Egyptian m-k-t) is first mentioned by name in the time of Thutmosis III (15th century BC) and in letters sent by Biridiya, the ruler of the city of M. (Akkadian URU Ma-gi-id-da KI), to the Phar…


(109 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[German version] Place in the eastern Negev (Nm 21,1; 33,40; Jos 12,14; Judges 1,16), mentioned in a source other than the Bible, by the Pharaoh Shoshenk ( c. 920 BC) in a list of towns; first settled around 3000-2650 BC. In the 9th cent. BC, a fortress with a sanctuary was built on the tell and repeatedly destroyed. In the 1st cent. BC, a Roman fort belonged to the Herodianic Limes Palaestinae. A. is a site of significant finds for ostraka with inscriptions in Hebrew and Aramaic. Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin) Bibliography Y. Aharoni, Arad Inscriptions, 1981 Z. Herzog, M. Aharoni, A. F. Rainey,…


(125 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Diadochi and Epigoni | Commerce | Hasmonaeans | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pompeius (Egyptian ypw, Assyrian yāpu, yappû, Hebrew yāpô ‘be beautiful’), Greek or Latin name for the modern Jaffa south of Tel Aviv. A place of settlement from the 2nd millennium BC to the Hellenistic-Roman period, I. is the only location in Palestine ( Palaestina) of a Greek myth. It is in I. that Perseus rescued  Andromeda who had been left at the mercy of a sea-monster (Ov. Me…

Samaria, Samaritaner

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger | Zangenberg, Jürgen
[English version] I. Samaria (Hebr. Šomron, LXX Σαμάρεια/ Samáreia), seit Omri (882-871 v. Chr.; Juda und Israel) Regierungssitz der Könige des Nordreichs Israel. Die neu erschlossene Stadt, deren Name (Wurzel šmr, “bewachen”, “schützen”; “Wartburg”) auf ihre strategische Lage hinweist, war nicht, wie oft vermutet, ein kanaanäischer Stadtstaat neben Jesreel als dem israelitischen Zentrum. S. war Residenzstadt Israels, Jesreel königlicher Grundbesitz. Wie aus assyrischen und at. Texten hervorgeht, hatten seit Adad-nirārī III. (811-781 v. Chr.) die Herrsc…

Beth Schemesch

(129 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[English version] Die hebr. (1 Sam 6; 2 Kg 14,11) Bezeichnung (“Haus der Sonne”) ist wahrscheinlich eine Anspielung auf die Verehrung des Sonnengottes (Jos 19,41). Erhalten hat sich der Name in dem arab. Dorf Ain Šams (“Quelle der Sonne”), das früher östl. des Tall ar-Rumaila (“der sandige Boden”) lag, mit dem das ant. B.S. zu identifizieren ist. 20 km westl. von Jerusalem, hatte B.S. eine verkehrsgeogr. bevorzugte Lage. Nach einer mittelbronzezeitlichen Besiedlung erlebte der Ort in der Spätbronzezeit mit der Kupferverarbeitung einen er…


(176 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Hasmonäer | Syrien | Theater | Zenobia (Besan). 25 km südl. des Sees Genezareth (Tiberias-See) auf dem Tall al-Ḥiṣn; der ant. Ort vom Chalkolithikum bis zur Kreuzfahrerzeit besiedelt. Der arab. Name geht auf hebr. bēt-šean (ägypt. btsr, keilschriftl. Bı̄tšāni) zurück. Wegen seiner strategischen und ökonomischen Bed. wurde B. vom 15. bis Mitte des 12. Jh.v.Chr. ein mil. und administratives Zentrum der ägypt. Asienpolitik und blieb als einziger Ort in Israel bis in die frühe E…


(687 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger | Wagner, Jörg
Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Ägäische Koine | Christentum | Coloniae | Diadochen und Epigonen | Hasmonäer | Hellenistische Staatenwelt | Kolonisation | Mesopotamien | Naturkatastrophen | Phönizier, Punier | Pompeius | Syrien (Σιδών; hebr. Ṣîdôn, arab. Ṣaidā). [English version] I. Bis Alexander d.Gr. S., 35 km nö von Tyros an der östl. Mittelmeerküste gelegen, ist bei Homer (Hom. Il. 6,290 f.; 23,743 f.; Hom. Od. 4,83 f., 618 u.ö.; vgl. Jos 13,6; 1 Kg 5,20) Syn. für Phönizien insgesamt, dessen Städte - neben S. (Gn 10,15)…
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