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Abraham

(625 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] [1] Biblical figure The biblical A. figure is subject to various interpretations during the early Jewish and rabbinical periods. To traditionally devout circles, A. represents the law-abiding patriarch, who, owing to the timeless nature of Jewish law, was able to observe the Halachic commandments previous to their revelation on Sinai (cf. i.a. Sir 44,19; Jub 15,1; 16,21; 21,5; syrBar 57,2; mQid 4,14; bYom 28b). As A. destroyed his father's graven images, he is regarded as the first r…

Yaṯrib

(160 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
(Qurʾan 33,13; Ἰάθριππα/ Iáthrippa in Steph. Byz. 321,13; corrupted as Λαθρίππα/ Lathríppa in Ptol. 6,7,31), modern Medina. [German version] I. Pre-Islamic period Ancient oasis settlement of economic significance in western central Arabia on the Incense Road. The Babylonian king Nabonidus set out from Tayma c. 550 BC on campaigns in the course of which he also conquered Y. Y. is mentioned in 3rd-cent. BC name lists in the Minaean capital Qarnāwu (Minaei). From the 1st century AD until the advent of Islam, there were powerful Judaeo-Arabian tribes in Y. Müller, Walter W. (Marburg…

Maesaimanes

(133 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Dietrich, Albert (Göttingen)
[German version] (Μαισαιμανεῖς/ Maisaimaneîs, var. Μναισαιμανεῖς/ Mnaisaimaneîs, Ptol. 6,7,21). A people settling in north-western Arabia directly west of the Zamēs mountain range in the neighbouring area of the Thamydenians; definitely identifiable with the Batmizomaneis (var. Banizomeneis, Diod. Sic. 3,44,2) mentioned in Agatharchides (De mari Erythraeo 92) in the same region and with the Marsimani - named in the annals of Sargon II of Assyria from 715 BC after the Tamudi - who lived in the desert, owed tribute to no king and b…

Cockfighting

(455 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Müller, Stefan (Hagen)
[German version] A. Spread and popularity Cockfighting is attested from the 5th cent. BC to the Roman Imperial period (earliest evidence in Pind. Ol. 12,14, latest in Hdn. 3,10,3). It was especially popular with the Greeks [1. 117; 2. 82-92]: fighting cocks were considered an ideal example of the will to win (Ael. VH 2,28); it is in that light that they are depicted on the Panathenaean prize amphorae [3. 34] ( Panathenaean amphorae); in Aesch. Eum. 861 they symbolize martial anger (the cock as ‘the bi…

Cassanitae

(142 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Ptol. 6,7,6: Κασσανῖται; Plin. HN 6,150: Casani; Agatharchidas in Diod. Sic. 3,45,6: Γασάνδαι/ Gasándai). People on the south-west coast of Arabia adjoining the Kinaidokolpites in the north and the Elisaroi in the south. In the area of the C. were the residence of the king Badeṓ (Βάδεως πόλις Steph. Byz.; probably al-Badī in Asīr), the town of Ambḗ, the village of Mámala (probably Mamala in Asīr) and Adḗdu (probably al-Ḥudaida). The C. should be identified with the Ghassān who originally were at home in Yemenite Tihāma before they settled in …

Malichu insula

(108 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Dietrich, Albert (Göttingen)
[German version] (Plin. HN 6,175 after Juba). Island off the west coast of Arabia Felix in the southern Red Sea. It served as the next point of orientation for seafarers after passing Exusta ( Catacecaumene [2]). M. can probably be identified with the island of Ḥạnīš al-kubrā (13° 43' N, 42° 45' E); it rises to a height of 407 m. When Ptol. 6,7,44 mentions Malichou (Μαλίχου / Malíchou, Var. Μαλιάχου δύο / Maliáchou dýo, i.e. the two islands of Malichus), this may refer to the two Ḥanīš Islands, i.e. the main island and its smaller, northern neighbour, Ḥanīš aṣṣ̄ụġrā.…

Adane

(234 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Adan, Aden), an important commercial town on the Indian Ocean in the southwestern Arabian peninsula, whose harbour lies on a bay protected by two volcanic peninsulas. The Eudaimones nēsoi mentioned in Agatharchides, De mari Erythraeo, 105a, at which trade ships called, probably referred to the islands of Adane. In the Periplous maris Erythraei § 26 the settlement of Eudaimōn Arabia is A., which is called after Arabia felix, whose most important port it was; it offered favourable anchorage and watering sites, which probably meant the ci…

Phoenicians, Poeni

(8,121 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Müller, Hans-Peter (Münster)
[German version] I. Names and concept, sources The name and concept of the Phoínikes (Φοίνικες)/Phoenicians (= P.) were formed in the Greek world [1]. Those designated by it understood themselves primarily as citizens or members of a union of cities, e.g. as Tyrians, Sidonians or - after the shared cultural region - as Canaanites [2]. In this they were referring to a political or ethnic identity derived from the Ancient Near Eastern Bronze Age. The various designations can only be reconciled from case to cas…

Labae

(106 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Λάβαι; Lábai: Pol. 13,9.; Steph. Byz.). City on the north-east coast of Arabia in the Gerrhaean coastal area of Chattēnía (Arabic al-Ḫaṭṭ), south of al-Qaṭīf and opposite Bahrein. Their ethnicon is Labaíoi, and probably with a conjecture of g to l the Gabaíoi (Str. 16,4,4) are indicated here, who as merchants travelled from their capital Gerrha to Hadramaut in 40 days. Arab geographers of the Middle Ages also mention Laʿbā as the name of salt pans along the coast of that region. Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography H. v. Wissmann, Zur Kenntnis von Ostarabien…

Mesala

(77 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Masala, Plin. HN 6,158). City of the Homeritae (Ḥimyars) in Arabia Felix, certainly identical with the port of Mesalum (Plin. HN. 12,69), from which white myrrh was exported. It may be equated with the ruined town of al-Aṣala, dialect am-Aṣala (13° 13′ N, 45° 28′ E), in the delta of the Wadi Banā on the Arabian Sea northeast of Aden. Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) Bibliography H. von Wissmann, s.v. Zamareni, RE Suppl. 11, 1325-1329.

Laeceni

(83 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Λαικηνοί/ Laikēnoí, Λαιηνοί/ Laiēnoí, Λεηνοί/ Leēnoí, Ptol. 6,7,22). Tribe who settled to the east of the central Arabian mountain range of Zámēs. Their name is not mentioned in any other ancient source and has to date not been satisfactorily interpreted. Perhaps the L. should be identified with the aṣḥāb al-Aika, the ‘people of the thicket’ or, rather, the ‘people of al-Aika’ mentioned in the Koran (15,78 et passim), a prehistoric people allegedly annihilated by the wrath of God. Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn)

Mariaba

(509 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Dietrich, Albert (Göttingen)
[German version] (Μαρίαβα; Maríaba). Capital of the Sabaean kingdom in the south-west of Arabia Felix, today the town of Mārib (15° 26′ N, 45° 16′ O). M. is mentioned as the metropolis of the Sabaeans in Str. 16,768, according to Eratosthenes, and in Str. 16,778, according to Artemidorus. It can be found as Mariba in Plin. HN 6,160 as well as in R. Gest. div. Aug. 26; Ptol. 6,7,37 lists the metropolis Μαράβα/ Marába (variant Μάρα/ Mára, Βάραβα/ Báraba). The name form Marsyaba (Str. 16,782) is surely a contamination of Mariaba and Saba. Sabaean inscriptions also render the…

Mapharitis

(335 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Dietrich, Albert (Göttingen)
[German version] (Μαφαρῖτις/ Mapharîtis, Peripl. m.r. 22). A region in the interior of south western Arabia Felix. In its capital Sawe (Σαυή), three travel days from the port of Muza, resided a prince by the name of Cholaebus (Χόλαιβος), in the middle of the 1st cent. AD. Compare the contemporary Sabaean inscription Sharabi-as-Sawā 1 (squeeze of inscription in [1] and [2]), according to which Kulayb Yuhamin, the tribal leader of Maāfirum, had a temple built below the city of Śawām. At the time, …

Spolia

(4,945 words)

Saba, Sabaei

(1,058 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] The Sabaei (Σαβαῖοι / Sabaîoi; Lat. Sabaei) were a people in the ancient land and kingdom that is known from the local inscriptions as sb (Saba) and is situated in the area of modern Yemen in the south-west of the Arabian peninsula. S. is already attested in Assyrian sources, for instance in the annals of Tiglath-Pileser III, to whom the Sabaajja paid homage with gifts in about 730 BC, in the annals of Sargon II, where in 715 the Sabaean Itamra is mentioned as bringing tribute, and in an inscription of Sennacherib, according to…

Col(o)bi

(38 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Κολοβοί, variant Κόλβοι). Ethiopian tribe from the area around the southern part of the Red Sea, named after the particular type of circumcision common to them (Str. 6,773; Ptol. 4,7,28). Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn)

Cane

(248 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with (Κανή; Kanḗ). Ancient seaport on the southern coast of Arabia in the bay of what is now Bīr Alī (14° 02′ N, 48° 20′ E). According to the Peripl. M. Rubr. 27, C., together with the offshore island Ὀρνέων/ Ornéōn, the ancient Urr Māwiyat and what is now Ḥuṣn al-Ġhurāb, was an important trading centre that was part of the Hadramitic kingdom of Eleazos and the starting point of the  incense road; Ptol. 6,7,10 too lists C. as  emporion, and Plin. HN 6,104 places Cane in the incense region. The port of C. (Qana) …

Leanitae

(114 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] (Λεανῖται; Leanîtai, Ptol. 6,7,18). People on the north-east coast of Arabia between Gerrha and the Šhaṭṭ al-ʿArab, after whom the Leanitian Bay (Λεανίτης κόλπος) is named. The territory of the L. included the town Malláda (variant

Nascus

(155 words)

Author(s): Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn)
[German version] …
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