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(918 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, a sect whose name is derived by Samʿānī from the Persian word k̲h̲urram “agreeable”, on the ground that they regarded everything that was agreeable as lawful; but it is more likely to be derived from Ḵh̲urram, a district of Ardabīl, where the sect may have arisen. According to Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, vi. 186, they came into prominence after the execution of Abū Muslim of Ḵh̲orāsān in 136 a. h., but while some of them denied that he was dead and foretold his return “to spread justice in the world”, others maintained the Imamate of his daughter Fāṭima, whence they got the names Muslimīya and Fāṭimīya. …


(1,634 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Abū ʿUbāda al-Walīd b. ʿUbaid, Arabic poet and anthologist of the third century (204—284 approximately). His nisba signifies member of the Buḥtur clan of the tribe Ṭaiʾ, whose glories he frequently celebrates. His birthplace was Manbid̲j̲ (or, according to one account a village near Manbid̲j̲ called Zardafna), ¶ and of Manbid̲j̲ he often speaks as his home; here he ultimately acquired property, which seems to have been inherited by his son T̲h̲ābit, who was living there in Iṣṭak̲h̲rī’s trnre. The woman who forms the subject of his erotic pr…

Dasūḳī or Dusūḳī

(571 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Ibrāhīm b. Abi ’l-Mad̲j̲d ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (or ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd) (633—676 = 1235-1236—1277-1278), native of Dusūḳ, a village of Lower Egypt in the G̲h̲arbīya District; founder of the Dusūḳī Order. According to the commentator on his Ḥizb (Ḥasan S̲h̲amma, Masarrat al-Ainain bi-S̲h̲arḥ Ḥizb Abi ’l-ʿAinain, Cairo n.d.), his father came from a village Mrḳs (Marcus?) on the opposite bank of the Nile, and was himself ¶ a walī; his mother was daughter of another walī Abu ’l-Fatḥ al-Wāsiṭī. He is said to have studied S̲h̲āfiʿī jurisprudence before he followed the Ṣūfīs, to hav…


(952 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, religious sect or order called after Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh, called Nūrbak̲h̲s̲h̲ (795—869 a. h.). 1. Life of the founder. Of this person there is a detailed biography in the work Mad̲j̲ālis al-Muʾminīn of Nūr Allāh al-S̲h̲ustarī (Bodleian MS., Ous. 366; see also Brit. Mus. Catalogue of Persian MSS.), chiefly based on a work ( tad̲h̲kira) by Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-Samarḳandī. His father was born in Ḳaṭīf, and his grandfather in al-Ḥass, whence in some g̲h̲azals he styles himself Laḥsawī. His father migrated to Ḳāʾin in Ḳuhistān, where his son was born. The …


(469 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, branch of the S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī Order, has its headquarters at Ḳenād̲j̲iā; lists of the heads are given by Rinn, loc. cit., Dupont and Coppolani, Confréries, p. 498, and Cour, loc. cit.; ¶ in the second work a specimen is given of the diploma of muḳaddam conferred by the head of the order, with seal. Their practice is said to differ from those of the other S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilīs only in details; their ordinary d̲h̲ikr is reproduced by Rinn, loc. cit., p. 411, and consists in the repetition of certain formulae, a hundred, others a thousand times. Their speciality is the guiding and p…


(261 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Abū ʿAlī al-Faḍl b. Ḏj̲aʿfar b. al-Faḍl b. Yūsuf, poet and letter-writer of the first half of the third century; although Ibn ¶ Maiyāda rated him as a poet above Buḥturī, and his prose style was also greatly admired, he is at present known only by occasional citations and scanty references. From these we learn that his early life was spent at Kūfa, that he belonged to the circle of Abu ’l-ʿAinā and Saʿīd b. Ḥumaid, and that he was patronized by ʿUbaid Allāh b. Yaḥyā, when the latter was at the height of his power (2…


(311 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, order of derwishes called after S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Abu ’l-T̲h̲anāʾ Aḥmad b. Abi ’l-Barakāt Muḥammad Sīwāsī or Sīwāsī-zāde, also called Ḳara S̲h̲ams al-Dīn and S̲h̲amsī (d. 1009 = 1600—1601). He is mentioned by the historians Naʿīmā (Constantinople 1281, i. 372) and Pečewī (Constantinople 1283, ii. 290) among the saints of the reign of Muḥammad III, and they state (probably on the authority of this sovereign, whose letter is cited by von Hammer, Geschichte der osmanischen Dichtkunst, iii. 286) that he fought at the taking of Erlau (1005 = 1596). He was the author of numer…


(694 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
(born 446, died 6 Red̲j̲eb 516), Abū Muḥammad al-Ḳāsim b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥarīrī, grammarian and elegant writer, was born and brought up at Mas̲h̲ān near Baṣra; he also studied at Baṣra, though the name of his teacher seems wrongly given by the authorities as al-Faḍl b. Muḥammad al-Ḳaṣabānī, since this personage died 444. At Baṣra he held the office of ṣāḥib al-k̲h̲abar, i. e. head of the intelligence department (cf. Ṭabarī iii. 1260, 13) to the court; and this office remained with his descendants till the time of ʿImād al-Dīn Iṣfahānī, who visited B…


(647 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, name of a sect reckoned among the S̲h̲īʿite extremists ( g̲h̲ulāt), called after Abu ’l-Ḵh̲aṭṭab Muḥammad b. Abī Zainab al-Asadī al-Ad̲j̲daʿ, who is said to have asserted the immanence ( ḥulūl) of the deity in the Imām Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Ṣādiḳ (83—148 = 702—765) and afterwards in himself. He obtained a following in al-Kūfa, where he was attacked by ʿĪsā b. Mūsā, who was governor for some years till 147 = 764/765; he armed his followers with stones, reeds and knives, assuring them that these would prevail against the enemy’s swords…


(3,439 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Order ( ṭarīḳa) of dervishes called after ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Ḏj̲īlānī [q. v.]. 1. Origin. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir (ob. 561 = 1166) was the principal of a school ( madrasa) of Ḥanbalite Law and a ribāṭ in Bag̲h̲dād. His sermons (collected in al-Fatḥ al-Rabbānī) were delivered sometimes in the one, sometimes in the other; both were notable institutions in the time of Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, and Yāḳūt ( Irs̲h̲ād al-Arīb, v. 274) records a bequest of books made to the former by a man who died in 572 (1176-7). Both appear to have come to an end at the sack of Bag̲h̲dād in 656 (1258),…


(1,352 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
(the forms Tid̲j̲d̲j̲ānī, Tid̲j̲īnī occur also), order founded by Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. al-Muk̲h̲tār b. Sālim al-Tid̲j̲d̲j̲ānī (1150—1230 = 1737—1815). 1. Life of the Founder. This person was born at ʿAin Māḍī, a village 72 kil. W. of Lag̲h̲uat, 28 E. of Tahmut. His family were the Awlād Sīdī S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Muḥammad, and his parents both died of plague in 1166 (1753). After pursuing his studies at his native place, he went to Fez in 1171 (1758) to continue them, thence to Abyad, where he stayed five years, t…

Abū Ḥaiyān

(973 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
ʿAlī b. Muḥammed b. al-ʿAbbās al-Tawḥīdī (so called either after an ancestor who sold a sort of date called tawḥīd, ¶ or in the sense ,upholder of pure monotheismʿ), jurist, philosopher, Ṣūfī, and compiler of miscellanies, lived in the fourth (10th) century. Little was preserved of his biography, but from documents quoted by Yāḳūt it appears that he was alive in Rad̲j̲ab 400 (Feb. 1010), and that he died at the age of more than eighty. His home was placed by different authorities at Nīs̲h̲āpūr, S̲h̲īrāz, or Wā siṭ. Much of his life wa…

Abū Tammām

(851 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
Ḥabīb b. Aws, poet and anthologist, born in 180 or 188 (796 or 804), and his birth-place is said to have been Ḏj̲āsim, a village near Damascus in the direction of Tiberias, died in 228 or 231 (842-843 or 845-846). His father was a Christian named T̲h̲ādūs (Theodosius?), for which name the son, when he became a Muslim, substituted the Arabic Aws, to which he attached a pedigree in the tribe of Ṭaiyʾ, whence he is often called simply the Ṭaiyʾite. Some of his early life was, it is said, spent in Dam…


(497 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, a branch of the Ḵh̲alwatī Order, named after Sunbul Sinān al-Dīn Yūsuf, whose birth-place is variously given as Bolou and Marsuan. His death-date is given in the Ḳāmūs al-ʿAlām as 936 (1529/1530); according however to al-S̲h̲aḳāʾiḳ al-Nuʿmānīya (transl. Rescher, 1927, p. 224, 225) he died before 929 (1522/1523); and this author, who was a contemporary, mentions him among the S̲h̲aik̲h̲s of the reign of Bāyazīd II (died 918= 1512), wherein he is followed by the author of the Tād̲j̲ al-Tawarīk̲h̲ (Constantinople 1279, ii. 595), who is half a century later. On the other hand…


(3,408 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S.
, Order ( ṭarīḳa ) of dervishes called after ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Ḏj̲īlānī [ q.v.]. 1.—Origin. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir (d. 561/1166) was the principal of a school ( madrasa ) of Ḥanbalī law and a ribāṭ in Bag̲h̲dād. His sermons (collected in al-Fatḥ al-Rabbānī ) were delivered sometimes in the one, sometimes in the other; both were notable institutions in the time of Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, and Yāḳūt ( Irs̲h̲ād al-Arīb , v, 274) records a bequest of books made to the former by a man who died in 572/1176-7. Both appear to have come to an end at the sack of Bag̲h̲…

Mawlānā K̲h̲ūnkār

(176 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S.
, a title of the head of the Mawlawī order of dervishes [see mawlawiyya ]. The second word is the Turkish form of the Persian k̲h̲udāwandigār , the equivalent of mawlā , which according to Aflākī ( Saints des derviches tourneurs , i, 59) was bestowed on D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn by his father (the ¶ derivation from K̲h̲ūn-kār , Persian “blood-shedder”, must depend on popular etymology). Sāmī in his Ḳāmūs al-aʿlām states that the word, besides used for “Sultan”, “King”, is applied to certain saintly personages, in such combinations as pīr k̲h̲ūnkār or mullā k̲h̲ūnkār . The und…


(1,231 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, confrérie religieuse ( ṭariḳa) algérienne, qui doit son nom à Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Rahmān al-Gas̲h̲tulī al-Ḏj̲urd̲j̲urī al-Azharī Abū Ḳabrayn, (m. 1208/1793-4). C’est une branche des Ḵh̲alwatiyya et elle fut, dit-on, appelée pendant quelque temps Bakriyya d’après Muṣtafā al-Bakrī al-S̲h̲āmī. A Nafṭa [ q.v.], en Tunisie, et dans quelques autres endroits, on l’appelle ʿAzzūziyya, du nom de Muṣṭafā b. Muḥammad b. ʿAzzūz. Vie du fondateur. Sa famille appartenait à la tribu des Ayt Smāʿīl, membre de la confédération des Gas̲h̲tula dans la Kabylie du Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ura;…

Mawlānā K̲h̲ūnkār

(161 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S.
, titre du supérieur de l’ordre de derviches mawlawis [voir Mawlawiyya]. Le second mot est la forme turque du mot persan k̲h̲udāwandigar, équivalent de mawlā, qui, d’après Aflākī ( Saints des derviches tourneurs, I, 59), fut donné à Ḏj̲alāl al-dīn Rūmī [ q.v.] par son père (une etymologie populaire le fait venir du persan k̲h̲ūn-kār «verseur de sang»). Sāmī, dans son Ḳāmūs al-aʿlām, dit que ce mot, employé pour désigner un «sultan», un «roi», est appliqué aussi à certains saints personnages, dans des combinaisons telles que pīr k̲h̲ūnkār ou mullā k̲h̲ūnkār. Le sens premier de ce titr…


(3,416 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, confrérie religieuse ( ṭarīḳa), ainsi nommée d’après ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Ḏj̲īlānī [ q.v.] 1. — Origine. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir (m. 561/1166) était le directeur d’une école ( madrasa) hanbalite et d’un ribāṭ à Bag̲h̲dād. Ses prédications (recueillies dans al-Fatḥ al-rabbānī) étaient faites tantôt dans la première, tantôt dans le second; c’étaient là deux établissements de premier ordre à l’époque d’Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, et Yāḳūt ( Irs̲h̲ād, V, 274) cite un legs de livres fait à cette école par un homme qui mourut en 572/1176-7. Les deux établissements paraissent avoir été v…


(1,244 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S.
, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī, Abū l-ʿAbbās, faḳīh s̲h̲āfiʿite de formation, fondateur de l’ordre de derviches Rifāʿiyya [ q.v.]. Il naquit en muḥarram 500/septembre 1106 (selon d’autres sources en rad̲j̲ab 512/octobre-novembre 1118) à Ḳaryat Ḥasan, un village des Baṭāʿiḥ, région des marécages du bas ʿIrāḳ [voir al-Baṭīḥa] entre Baṣra et Wāsiṭ — de là la nisba d’al-Baṭaʾiḥī qui lui est parfois donnée — et mourut à Umm ʿUbayda, dans la même région, le 22 d̲j̲umādā I 578/23 octobre 1182 (voir Ibn Ḵh̲allikān. éd. ʿAbbās, I, 171-2, trad. de Slane, I, 152-3). La nisba d’al-Rifāʿi est ordinairement expli…
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