Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Margoliouth, D.S." ) OR dc_contributor:( "Margoliouth, D.S." )' returned 52 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

S̲h̲amsīya

(311 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, order of derwishes called after S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Abu ’l-T̲h̲anāʾ Aḥmad b. Abi ’l-Barakāt Muḥammad Sīwāsī or Sīwāsī-zāde, also called Ḳara S̲h̲ams al-Dīn and S̲h̲amsī (d. 1009 = 1600—1601). He is mentioned by the historians Naʿīmā (Constantinople 1281, i. 372) and Pečewī (Constantinople 1283, ii. 290) among the saints of the reign of Muḥammad III, and they state (probably on the authority of this sovereign, whose letter is cited by von Hammer, Geschichte der osmanischen Dichtkunst, iii. 286) that he fought at the taking of Erlau (1005 = 1596). He was the author of numer…

Ḥarīrī

(694 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
(born 446, died 6 Red̲j̲eb 516), Abū Muḥammad al-Ḳāsim b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥarīrī, grammarian and elegant writer, was born and brought up at Mas̲h̲ān near Baṣra; he also studied at Baṣra, though the name of his teacher seems wrongly given by the authorities as al-Faḍl b. Muḥammad al-Ḳaṣabānī, since this personage died 444. At Baṣra he held the office of ṣāḥib al-k̲h̲abar, i. e. head of the intelligence department (cf. Ṭabarī iii. 1260, 13) to the court; and this office remained with his descendants till the time of ʿImād al-Dīn Iṣfahānī, who visited B…

K̲h̲aṭṭābīya

(647 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, name of a sect reckoned among the S̲h̲īʿite extremists ( g̲h̲ulāt), called after Abu ’l-Ḵh̲aṭṭab Muḥammad b. Abī Zainab al-Asadī al-Ad̲j̲daʿ, who is said to have asserted the immanence ( ḥulūl) of the deity in the Imām Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Ṣādiḳ (83—148 = 702—765) and afterwards in himself. He obtained a following in al-Kūfa, where he was attacked by ʿĪsā b. Mūsā, who was governor for some years till 147 = 764/765; he armed his followers with stones, reeds and knives, assuring them that these would prevail against the enemy’s swords…

Ḳādirīya

(3,439 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Order ( ṭarīḳa) of dervishes called after ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Ḏj̲īlānī [q. v.]. 1. Origin. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir (ob. 561 = 1166) was the principal of a school ( madrasa) of Ḥanbalite Law and a ribāṭ in Bag̲h̲dād. His sermons (collected in al-Fatḥ al-Rabbānī) were delivered sometimes in the one, sometimes in the other; both were notable institutions in the time of Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, and Yāḳūt ( Irs̲h̲ād al-Arīb, v. 274) records a bequest of books made to the former by a man who died in 572 (1176-7). Both appear to have come to an end at the sack of Bag̲h̲dād in 656 (1258),…

Arabia

(8,766 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S. | Kratschkowsky, Ign.
C. Arabia under Islām. Both internal and external causes have since the last date (1876) worked changes in the peninsula, the geography of which has been markedly advanced by a number of intrepid explorers, especially St. John Philby, R. E. Cheeseman, Bertram Thomas, D. Van der Meulen and H. Von Wissmann. The regions traversed by the last three of these, the “Empty Quarter” and the independent sulṭānates of Ḥaḍramawt, have indeed been little affected; though even in the latter the motor-car is showi…

Tid̲j̲ānīya

(1,352 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
(the forms Tid̲j̲d̲j̲ānī, Tid̲j̲īnī occur also), order founded by Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. al-Muk̲h̲tār b. Sālim al-Tid̲j̲d̲j̲ānī (1150—1230 = 1737—1815). 1. Life of the Founder. This person was born at ʿAin Māḍī, a village 72 kil. W. of Lag̲h̲uat, 28 E. of Tahmut. His family were the Awlād Sīdī S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Muḥammad, and his parents both died of plague in 1166 (1753). After pursuing his studies at his native place, he went to Fez in 1171 (1758) to continue them, thence to Abyad, where he stayed five years, t…

Abū Ḥaiyān

(973 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
ʿAlī b. Muḥammed b. al-ʿAbbās al-Tawḥīdī (so called either after an ancestor who sold a sort of date called tawḥīd, ¶ or in the sense ,upholder of pure monotheismʿ), jurist, philosopher, Ṣūfī, and compiler of miscellanies, lived in the fourth (10th) century. Little was preserved of his biography, but from documents quoted by Yāḳūt it appears that he was alive in Rad̲j̲ab 400 (Feb. 1010), and that he died at the age of more than eighty. His home was placed by different authorities at Nīs̲h̲āpūr, S̲h̲īrāz, or Wā siṭ. Much of his life wa…

Abū Tammām

(851 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
Ḥabīb b. Aws, poet and anthologist, born in 180 or 188 (796 or 804), and his birth-place is said to have been Ḏj̲āsim, a village near Damascus in the direction of Tiberias, died in 228 or 231 (842-843 or 845-846). His father was a Christian named T̲h̲ādūs (Theodosius?), for which name the son, when he became a Muslim, substituted the Arabic Aws, to which he attached a pedigree in the tribe of Ṭaiyʾ, whence he is often called simply the Ṭaiyʾite. Some of his early life was, it is said, spent in Dam…

Sunbulīya

(497 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, a branch of the Ḵh̲alwatī Order, named after Sunbul Sinān al-Dīn Yūsuf, whose birth-place is variously given as Bolou and Marsuan. His death-date is given in the Ḳāmūs al-ʿAlām as 936 (1529/1530); according however to al-S̲h̲aḳāʾiḳ al-Nuʿmānīya (transl. Rescher, 1927, p. 224, 225) he died before 929 (1522/1523); and this author, who was a contemporary, mentions him among the S̲h̲aik̲h̲s of the reign of Bāyazīd II (died 918= 1512), wherein he is followed by the author of the Tād̲j̲ al-Tawarīk̲h̲ (Constantinople 1279, ii. 595), who is half a century later. On the other hand…

Ḳādiriyya

(3,408 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S.
, Order ( ṭarīḳa ) of dervishes called after ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Ḏj̲īlānī [ q.v.]. 1.—Origin. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir (d. 561/1166) was the principal of a school ( madrasa ) of Ḥanbalī law and a ribāṭ in Bag̲h̲dād. His sermons (collected in al-Fatḥ al-Rabbānī ) were delivered sometimes in the one, sometimes in the other; both were notable institutions in the time of Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, and Yāḳūt ( Irs̲h̲ād al-Arīb , v, 274) records a bequest of books made to the former by a man who died in 572/1176-7. Both appear to have come to an end at the sack of Bag̲h̲…

Mawlawiyya

(7,235 words)

Author(s): Yazıcı, T. | Margoliouth, D.S. | Jong, F. de
, a Ṣūfī order or ṭarīḳa , in Turkish Mewlewiyye, modern Mevlevî, which takes its name from the Mawlānā (“Our Master”), the sobriquet of D̲j̲alal al-Dīn Rūmī [ q.v.]. Although not called by this name, it appears that such a ṭarīḳa was formed already in the Mawlānā’s time, and this view is reinforced by the existence of a group of disciples around the Mawlānā, by his concern for their education and by his appointment of deputies to carry out this task during his absences. However, like many ṭuruḳ (e.g. the K̲h̲alwatiyya [ q.v.]), this ṭarīḳa acquired its name at a later stage. There is no…

Mawlānā K̲h̲ūnkār

(176 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S.
, a title of the head of the Mawlawī order of dervishes [see mawlawiyya ]. The second word is the Turkish form of the Persian k̲h̲udāwandigār , the equivalent of mawlā , which according to Aflākī ( Saints des derviches tourneurs , i, 59) was bestowed on D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn by his father (the ¶ derivation from K̲h̲ūn-kār , Persian “blood-shedder”, must depend on popular etymology). Sāmī in his Ḳāmūs al-aʿlām states that the word, besides used for “Sultan”, “King”, is applied to certain saintly personages, in such combinations as pīr k̲h̲ūnkār or mullā k̲h̲ūnkār . The und…
▲   Back to top   ▲