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Zariadris

(61 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Ζαρίαδρις/ Zaríadris). Antiochus [5] III's governor in Armenia, together with Artaxias [1]. The two defected after Antiochus's defeat by the Romans in 189 BC and assumed royal titles, Z. in the western part of Armenia (particularly Sophene, Acilisene, Odomantis; capital probably at Carcathiocerta). Successors may have ruled until c. 93 BC (Str. 11,14,2; 5; 15). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibliography Will 2, 55.

Apama

(231 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] [1] First wife of Seleucus I (end of the 4th cent. BC) Daughter of the Bactrian Spitamenes, married at the ‘mass wedding’ staged in Susa in 324 BC by Alexander [4] the Great, to Seleucus I, mother of Antiochus [2] I. Her subsequent fate, once Seleucus married Stratonice, daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes, is unknown (Inscr. Didyma 113; 479 f.; Str. 12,578; 16,479; Plut. Demetr. 31,5; Arr. Anab. 7,4; App. Syr. 57). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) [German version] [2] Wife of Ptolemaeus I (end of the 4th cent. BC) A. in Persian Artakama, the daughter of the Persian Artab…

Somatophylakes

(95 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (σωματοφύλακες/ sōmatophýlakes; from sôma = 'body' and phyláttein = 'keep guard'; sing. sōmatophýlax) were among the Greeks the bodyguards of high-ranking personages - sometimes nobles themselves (e.g. Diod. Sic. 14,43,3; cf. Hdt. 7,205; 8,124; Xen. Hell. 6,4,14). Two circles of attendants and guards surrounded Alexander [4] the Great, the 'companions' (Hetairoi) and the somatophylakes, some of whom could also be entrusted with assignments far away from the king [1. 1,32 ff.]. In this way, somatophylax (and ἀρχισωματοφύλαξ/ archisōmatophýlax, 'arch-bodyg…

Eucratides

(104 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Εὐκρατίδης; Eukratídēs). The son of Heliocles and Laodice, overthrew Demetrius I of Bactria and India about 170 BC on behalf of his cousin Antiochus IV and made himself ‘great king’. About 150 (?) E. was murdered by his son. Soon after E.'s death the Bactrian kingdom came to an end due to external attacks (HN 838f.; Str. 11,9,2, 11,11,2; 15,1,3; Iust. 41,6,1-5 Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibliography The Cambridge History of Iran 3, 1984 A. N. Lahiri, Corpus of Indo-Greek Coins, 1965 A. K. Narain, The Indo-Greeks, 1957 W. W. Tarn, The Greeks in Bactria and India, 21951 Wi…

Xenoetas

(62 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Ξενοίτας; Xenoítas) from Achaea. In 221 BC Antiochus [5] III sent him as a stratēgós with full authority against the renegade Molon [1] who defeated him with a ruse after an early victory, despite support from the governors of Susiana and Mesene (Pol. 5,45,6; 46,9-48,9). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibliography H. H. Schmitt, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte Antiochos' des Großen, 1964, 116; 127-131; 178 f.

Garsyeris

(104 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Γαρσύηρις; Garsýeris, because of -υηρις/υερις late Hittite-Luwian? [1. 669]). As a cast-out officer of Achaeus [5], he advised the latter in 221/0 BC to secede from Antiochus III. In the dispute of the Pisidian towns Pednelissus and Selge in 218, he intervened against Pednelissus together with several other towns of the region, but without the help of Side. Together with Achaeus he forced Selge to accept a peace and pay money (Pol. 5,57; 72-76). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibliography 1 Zgusta. A. Bouché-Leclercq, Histoire des Séleucides (323-64 avant J.-…

Seleucids

(254 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] The kings who are most often referred to as Seleucids are Antiochus [2-14] and Seleucus [2-8], less often, Demetrius [I7-9] and Philippus [24-25]. The Seleucids, who were frequently related by marriage to other royal families, were the descendents of Seleucus [2], the founder of the Macedonian kingdom and dynasty in Asia Minor, the Middle East and Central Asia; they ruled over the largest kingdom (a maximum of c. 3,500,000 km2 ) of those that emerged after Alexander [4] the Great's death  (Diadochi; Wars of the Diadochi).  The size and strength of …

Bacchides

(63 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Βακχίδης; Bakchídēs). ‘Friend’ of the Seleucid Antiochus IV, who governed Mesopotamia on his behalf. In 162 BC, he installed Alcimus as high priest under the orders of Demetrius I, defeated Iudas Maccabaeus, and strictly upheld Seleucid rulership over Judea (1 Macc 7-9; Ios. Bell. Iud. 1,35f.; Ant. Iud. 12,393-396; 420ff. passim; 13,4ff. passim Niese.  Antiochus [2-12] Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)

Marion

(166 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
M. was installed by Cassius [I 10] Longinus as ruler (‘ tyrannos ’) of the city of Tyre in 43/2 BC. M. supported the Hasmonean Antigonus [5], who had returned from exile, in his attempt to regain ground in Galilee and Judea against Herod ( Herodes [1]). Herod drove M. out of Galilee, but gave gifts to some of the captured Tyrian soldiers and sent them home (Jos. BI. 1,238f.; Ant. Iud. 14,297f.). [German version] [1] Ruler of the city of Tyre, 43/2 v.Chr. Marion M. was installed by Cassius [I 10] Longinus as ruler (‘ tyrannos’) of the city of Tyre in 43/2 BC. M. supported the  Hasmonean An…

Lagoras

(93 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Λαγόρας; Lagóras). As an officer of Ptolemaios IV, L. of Crete tried in vain in 219 BC to occupy the narrow pass of Berytus before Antiochus [5] III. Later, he defected to Antiochus. In the latter's war against Achaeus [5], L. forced his way into the besieged city of Sardis at an unguarded position on the city wall and opened a gate to the besiegers (Pol. 5,61,9; 7,15-18). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibliography M. Launey, Recherches sur les armées hellénistiques, 21987, 1163 H. H. Schmitt, Unt. zur Geschichte Antiochos' d.Gr., 1964.

Epiphanes

(212 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Ἐπιφανής; Epiphanḗs, ‘god manifest’). Epithet of Hellenistic rulers, already evident in Athens in the early Hellenistic period (307 BC) in the godlike veneration of Antigonus [1] Monophthalmos and his son Demetrius Poliorketes and the decrees issued in their honour. In this, the beneficial power ( Epiphany) of the manifest deities was transferred to and celebrated in the physically present ( parousía) king, who was venerated as a god ( theós) and who, it was hoped, would act as saviour ( sotḗr) and benefactor ( euergétēs) (Demochares, FGrH 75 F 2; Duris, FGrH 7…

Asiarchy

(266 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] Provincial office, exercized by members of the regional elite, extending back to the Roman Republican period, well attested in the Imperial period by literary, numismatic and especially epigraphic evidence [1. 1601ff. and 1604ff., supplemented by 2. 42 A.3 and 3. 112ff.]. The ‘provincial council’ ( Koinon) of Asia was active for the province from 29 BC in the cult of Roma and Augustus and generally in the  ruler cult. After 26 there were several towns with temples of the provincial Imperial cult in Asia and several ‘high priests (archiereís) of Asia’ attached to …

Neolaus

(90 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Νεώλαος; Neṓlaos). N. took part in the uprising of his brothers Molon [1] and Alexander against Antiochus [5] III. In Molon's battle of 220 BC against Antiochus, M. commanded the left wing of the army, which defected to the king, determining both the result of the battle and the fate of the insurrection. N. fled to Alexander in the Persis, killing their mother, Molon's children and himself (Pol. 5,53,11-54,5). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibliography 1 H.H. Schmitt, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte Antiochos' des Großen, 1964, 143ff. 2 Will, vol. 2, 17ff.

Polyxenidas

(81 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Πολυξενίδας/ Polyxenídas). Banished Rhodian (Liv. 37,10,1; App. Syr. 21,97), general and admiral under Antiochus [5] III, in 209 BC led Cretan auxiliary troops against the Parthian king Arsaces [2] II (Pol. 10,29,6). In the war against Rome he was beaten at Corycus in 191, destroyed the Rhodian fleet under Pausistratus at Samian Panormus in 190 (Liv. 37,8-11) and after a success against the Romans lost half his fleet at Myonnesus (Liv. 36,41-45; 37,27-30; App. Syr. 22,103-109; 24,114-120; 27, 132-136). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)

Polyxenidas

(77 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[English version] (Πολυξενίδας). Verbannter Rhodier (Liv. 37,10,1; App. Syr. 21,97), Feldherr und Admiral Antiochos' [5] III., führte 209 v. Chr. eine kretische Hilfstruppe gegen den Partherkönig Arsakes [2] II. (Pol. 10,29,6). Im Krieg gegen die Römer wurde er 191 bei Korykos geschlagen, vernichtete 190 beim samischen Panormos die rhodische Flotte unter Pausistratos (Liv. 37,8-11) und verlor nach einem Erfolg gegen die Römer die halbe Flotte bei Myonnesos (Liv. 36,41-45; 37,27-30; App. Syr. 22,103-109; 24,114-120; 27, 132-136). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)

Eukratides

(98 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[English version] (Εὐκρατίδης). Sohn von Heliokles und Laodike, stürzte im Auftrag seines Vetters Antiochos IV. um 170 v.Chr. Demetrios I. von Baktrien und Indien und machte sich zum “Großkönig”. Um 150 (?) wurde E. von seinem Sohn ermordet. Bald nach E.' Tod endete das baktrische Reich unter äußeren Angriffen (HN 838f.; Strab. 11,9,2; 11,11,2; 15,1,3; Iust. 41,6,1-5). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibliography The Cambridge History of Iran 3, 1984 A.N. Lahiri, Corpus of Indo-Greek Coins, 1965 A.K. Narain, The Indo-Greeks, 1957 W.W. Tarn, The Greeks in Bactria and India, 21951 Will G. …

Bakchides

(58 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[English version] (Βακχίδης). “Freund” des Seleukiden Antiochos IV., verwaltete für diesen Mesopotamien. 162 v.Chr. setzte er im Auftrag Demetrios' I. Alkimos als Hohepriester ein, besiegte Iudas Makkabaios und hielt die seleukidische Herrschaft über Judäa mit Strenge aufrecht (1 Makk 7-9; Ios. bell. Iud. 1,35f.; ant. Iud. 12,393-396; 420ff. passim; 13,4ff. passim Niese. Antiochos [2-12] Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)

Asiarchie

(230 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[English version] Provinziales Amt, ausgeübt von Angehörigen der regionalen Oberschicht, in die Zeit der röm. Republik zurückreichend, in der Kaiserzeit lit., numismatisch und bes. epigraphisch vielfach belegt [1. 1601ff. bzw. 1604ff., ergänzt von 2. 42 A.3 und 3. 112ff.]. Der “Landtag” (Koinon) von Asia betätigte sich für die Prov. seit 29 v.Chr. im Roma-und-Augustus- bzw. allg. im Kaiserkult. Seit 26 gab es mehrere Städte mit Tempeln des provinziellen Kaiserkultes in Asia und mehrere ihnen zugeordnete “Oberpriester (archiereís) Asias”. Die A. war als ethnisches Pri…

Neolaos

(84 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[English version] (Νεώλαος). N. hatte Anteil am Aufstand seiner Brüder Molon [1] und Alexandros gegen Antiochos [5] III. In der Schlacht Molons 220 v.Chr. gegen Antiochos befehligte N. den linken Flügel des Heeres, der zum König überlief und mit der Schlacht zugleich den Zusammenbruch der Empörung entschied. N. floh zu Alexandros in die Persis und tötete die Mutter, die Kinder Molons und sich selbst (Pol. 5,53,11-54,5). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibliography 1 H.H. Schmitt, Unt. zur Gesch. Antiochos' d.Gr., 1964, 143ff. 2 Will, Bd. 2, 17ff.

Garsyeris

(92 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[English version] (Γαρσύηρις, wegen -υηρις/υερις späthethit.-luw.? [1. 669]). Als Vertriebener Offizier des Achaios [5], riet diesem 221/220 v.Chr. zum Abfall von Antiochos III. In eine Auseinandersetzung der pisidischen Städte Pednelissos und Selge griff er 218 zusammen mit mehreren Städten der Region, aber ohne die Hilfe von Side gegen Pednelissos ein und zwang gemeinsam mit Achaios Selge zu Frieden und Geldzahlung (Pol. 5,57; 72-76). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibliography 1 Zgusta. A. Bouché-Leclercq, Histoire des Séleucides (323-64 avant J.-C.), 1913/14, 140, 148 H.…
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