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Local chronicles, local history

(563 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] Historical or antiquarian works on particular areas or localities, often dated according to eponymous officials. According to [1], Greek local chronicles and local historiography grew out of official lists and indices (officials, priests, victors in competitions) in which notes on all sorts of events were scattered. From these preliterary town chronicles, local chronicles and histories supposedly developed in the 6th/5th cents. BC, with the Hóroi (Annual Books) of Samos being the earliest; later the Atthís followed. This opinion, whic…

Damocles

(90 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Δαμοκλῆς; Damoklês). Courtier and sycophant of the tyrant  Dionysius [1] I (according to Timaeus FGrH 566 F 32 of Dionysius II). The anecdote of the ‘sword of Damocles’ became famous through Cicero (Tusc. 5,61f.): as D. considered the powerful and rich tyrant to be the happiest person in the world, the latter had a sumptuous meal prepared for him but above his head had a sword suspended on a horse hair in order to demonstrate to him the true ‘happiness’ of a tyrant. Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Mnesiptolemus

(93 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Μνησιπτόλεμος/ Mnēsiptólemos). Son of Calliarchus from Cyme, a city in Asia Minor (IG XI 697), Greek historian at the court of king Antiochus [5] III of Seleucia (222-187 BC). In his Historía, now completely lost, he was ‘probably more concerned with the deeds of Antiochus the Great than with the entire history of the Syrian kings’ [1]. Because of the many trivial details about the court in his writings, he was ridiculed in comedy (cf. Ath. 10,40 p. 432bc = T 2). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 FGrH 164 with commentary.

Terias

(48 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Τηρίας; Tērías). River on the eastern coast of Sicilia with Leontini on its upper reaches (Scyl. 13; Diod.  Sic. 14,14,3;  cf. Thuc. 6,50,3; 6,94,2; Plin. HN 3,89), modern San Leonardo di Lentini. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 125.

Sicanus

(74 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Σικανός; Sikanós). From Syracuse, son of Execestus; in the autumn of 415 BC he, Hermocrates [1] and Heracleides [2] were elected plenipotentiary strategoi (Thuc. 6,73). Sent in 413 to conquer Acragas, he returned without achieving anything (Thuc. 7,36; 7,50,1). His attempt to set fire to the ships salvaged by the Athenians from a lost sea battle (at the beginning of September 413) failed (Thuc. 7,70-74). Peloponnesian War Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Gellias

(62 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Γελλίας; Gellías). Wealthy Acragantian, whose unique hospitality and generosity were extolled by Diodorus (13,83) when portraying the prosperity of Acragas in the 5th cent. BC (Diod. Sic. 13,81,4-84,7 = Timaeus FGrH 566 F 26a). Cf. also Ath. I 4 and Val. Max. 4,8 ext. 2. G. died when Acragas was destroyed by the Carthaginians in 406/5. Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Agroetas

(52 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀγροίτας; Agroítas). Greek historian of the Hellenistic era (from Cyrene?). Author of Libyka in at least three books. The few preserved fragments display a rationalistic reshaping of mythology. A. apparently influenced the mythological handbook cited by Diod. Sic. 4,26,2-4 and used at 3,52 ff. (FGrH 762). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Deinias

(83 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Δεινίας; Deinías). From Argos, lived in the 3rd cent. BC; he was the author of Argoliká in at least nine books. They ranged in scope from extensive treatment of the mythical period to the battle of Cleonae ( c. 235), at which  Aratus [2] defeated the tyrant Aristippus of Argos (FGrH 306 F 5). His identity with the D. who murdered the tyrant Abantidas of Sicyon in 251/50 (T 1), is not established. FGrH 306 (with comm.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Nereis

(102 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Νηρηίς/ Nērēís). Daughter of the Molossian king Pyrrhus II. In 233/2 BC, for dynastic reasons, Hiero [2] II married her to his son Gelo [2]; she bore three sons, including Hieronymus [3], and one daughter. The name of the queen is inscribed in the theatre of Syracuse (Syll.3 429). N. also had statues of her family erected at Delphi and Olympia (Syll.3 453; Pol. 7,4,5; Liv. 24,6,8; Paus. 6,12,3). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 J. Seibert, Historische Beiträge zu den dynastischen Verbindungen in hellenistischer Zeit, 1967, 110f. 2 G. de Sensi Sestito, Gerone I…

Theron

(366 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Θήρων/ Thḗrōn). Tyrant of Acragas from the line of the Emmenids; he lived c. 540/530-472 BC. His children from his first marriage were Thrasydaeus and Demarete, the consort of Gelo [1]; from c. 485 BC T. was married a second time to a daughter of Polyzalus (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 93; scholium Pind. Ol. 2,29b-d; see stemma in Deinomenids). T. gained control of Acragas in 488 BC (Diod. Sic. 11,53,1) and in 483 BC took the town of Himera by driving out Terillus (Hdt. 7,165); he entrusted the town to his son Thrasydaeus. The cry for help fro…

Xenomedes

(94 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ξενομήδης/ Xenomḗdēs) of Ceos. Logographer of the 5th cent. BC (Dion. Hal. de Thucydide 5). Author of a history of his home island (title unknown!), from which Callimachus [3] (Aetia 3, fr. 75 Pfeiffer) took the famous story of Acontius and Cydippe [1]. Other themes treated by X. are mentioned by Callimachus (fr. 75,54-77, also [1]). X. may also have been used by Aristotle [6] for his Keíōn politeía (fr. 511 Rose, cf. also 611,26-29). Logographos Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 G. Huxley, Xenomedes of Keos, in: GRBS 6, 1965, 235-245. FGrH 442 with comm.

Sosylus

(119 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Σωσύλος; Sōsýlus). Greek historian, from Laconia, like Silenus [1] in Hannibal's retinue, "as long as fate allowed"; he was also Hannibal's Greek teacher (Nep. Hann. 13,3 = FGrH 176 T 1). Author of an 'official' history of Hannibal in 7 books (Diod. 26,4 = FGrH 176 T 2): S. is sharply criticised by Polybius (3,20,5 = FGrH 176 T 3) for factual errors, but his description, preserved in one of the Würzburg papyri (PGraec. 1), of a complex nautical manoeuvre from a sea battle gives a far more favourable view of his historical writing. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography FGrH 176…

Dinon

(101 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Δίνων; Dínōn) of Colophon, the 4th cent. BC, father of Cleitarchus, a historian of Alexander (FGrH 690 T 2), and the author of the Persiká in at least three parts ( syntáxeis) with several books each (F 3) from Semiramis (at least) to the reconquest of Egypt by Artaxerxes [3] III (343/2). The often novel-like and sensationalist representation (cf. F 10; 17; 22) was influenced by Ctesias and was used, e.g., by Pompeius Trogus and Plutarch (Artaxerxes). FGrH 690. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography O. Lendle, Einführung in die griech. Geschichtsschreibung, 1992, 271 H. …

Lindian Chronicle

(237 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] The Anagraphé of Lindus (on Rhodes), discovered in 1904, is an outstanding example of a local history work with a special topic. The inscription was set up upon application by Hagesitimus, the son of Timachidas, through a decision of the council at the sanctuary of Athena Lindia in 99 BC: it contains the wording of this decision (= A), an inventory of 45 votive offerings that were set up (allegedly) in the temple (= B and C), and the description of four epiphanies (‘manifestations…

Psaon

(42 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ψάων; Psáōn) of Plataeae, author of a universal history, continuing the work of  Diyllus (Diod. 21,5). It therefore begins in 297/6 BC; its end point is unknown: Only 3 fragments survive (FGrH 78 with comm.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Clytus

(42 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Κλύτος; Klýtos) of Miletus, pupil of Aristotle [6] and author of Perí Milḗtou in at least two bks, quoted only by Athenaeus (12,540c; 14,655c). Perhaps used by Aristotle in the Milēsíōn politeía. FGrH 490 with comm. Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Sophaenetus

(205 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Σοφαίνετος/ Sophaínetos). From Stymphalus; despite his advanced age one of the leaders of Cyrus [3] the Younger's mercenaries in his struggle with his brother Artaxerxes [2] II (Xen. An. 5,3,1; 6,5,13): He recruited mercenaries among the Greeks (1,1,11; 1,2,1) and took 1000 hoplites to Cyrus in Sardis or Celaenae (1,2,3 or 1,2,9). On the return journey he led a convoy of ships from Trapezus to Cerasus (5,3,1), but because of his casual attention of finances had to pay a fine (5,8,1). Only Stephanus [7] from Byzantium mentions an Anábasis Kýrou by S. (F 1-4). It is he…

Terillus

(87 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Τήριλλος; Tḗrillos). Son of Crinippus, tyrant of Himera, was deposed by Theron c. 483 BC. A call for help by T. and his father-in-law Anaxilaus [1] of Rhegium led in 480 to an invasion of Sicily by the Carthaginians under Hamilcar [1], a guest-friend of T.; Hamilcar and his army were decisively defeated by Gelon [1] and Theron at Himera (Hdt. 7,165-167). Of the later fate of T. nothing is known. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 134, 156.

Xenodicus

(195 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ξενόδικος; Xenódikos). [German version] [1] Uncle of the tyrant Theron of Acragas Son of the Emmenid Telemachus and uncle of Theron of Acragas. His sons Hippocrates and Capys rebelled against Theron in 476 BC, who defeated them at Himera, whereupon they settled in Sicanian Camicus (schol. Pind. P. 6,5a and O. 2,173f-g). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 135. [German version] [2] From Acragas, second half of the 4th cent. BC X. (also Xenodocus) from Acragas (both forms of the name can be found in Diod. 20,31,4; 32,2; 56…

Charax

(136 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Χάραξ; Chárax). A. Claudius C. from Pergamum; Greek historian. He lived during the 2nd cent. AD under Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, was a priest and in AD 147 consul. C. wrote a universal history in 40 books, covering especially Greek and -- from book 12 -- Roman history up to the period of ‘Nero and his successors’ (Suda s.v. = T 1). The work was later summarized and used by Stephanus of Byzantium under the title Chroniká. The fragments relate mostly to mythological times, as it was mainly for his euhemeristic and allegorical interpretation…
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