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Lade

(79 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Λάδη; Ládē). Island originally off the coast of Miletus, length 3 km, height up to 98 m, today only a hilly ridge about 2 km from the coast because of the alluvial deposits of the Maeander. L. became known through the defeat of the Greeks in the Ionian Rebellion 496 BC: Hdt. 6,7ff.; Thuc. 8,17,3; Arr. Anab. 1,18,4ff.; Str. 14,1,7; Paus. 1,35,6. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s.v. L., RE 12, 381.

Lemnos

(813 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine (Λῆμνος; Lêmnos). [German version] A. Location Fertile L., which is, however, today almost treeless, is - at 477 km2 - one of the larger Aegean islands. Mainly consisting of slate with volcanic rock deposited in it, the low hill country reaches its highest elevation with the Skopia at 470 m. The rugged coast has bays that cut in deeply. The ancient capital cities were Myrina on the west coast (remains of a…

Cythera

(756 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Κύθηρα; Kýthēra, Lat. Cythera, the modern Kithira). [German version] A. Geography of the island Off the south-eastern tip of the Peloponnese, 30 km long and 18 km wide, C. covers an area of around 262 km2, and is surrounded by several small, uninhabited islands. The coast consists mostly of steep cliffs, indented with small bays from which narrow, steep valleys lead into…

Pelethronium

(84 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Πελεθρόνιον; Pelethrónion). Valley or region on the western slopes of the peak of  Pelium in Thessalia, where Chiron is supposed to have grown up and where the herb chironion or centaurion, used for healing snake bites, grew. Hence poetically the epithet 'Pelethronian' is used for Chiron, but also generally for 'Thessalian'. Documentation: Nic. Ther. 438ff.; 505; Strab. 7,3,6; Verg. G. 3,115. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 43f.  Id., s.v. Pelethronion, RE 19, 269f.

Lycaeum

(426 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Λύκαιον; Lýkaion). In the broad sense, the entire mountain mass consisting of various limestones west of the plateau of Megale Polis in Parrhasia (Paus. 8,2,1; 38,2ff.; 4,20,2; 8,41,3; Str. 8,3,22; Paus. 8,2,1; Thuc. 5,54,1). Polybius reckoned the L. to be among the largest mountain ranges of Greece (in Str. 4,6,12; ὤρεα μακρά in Theoc. 1,123). The L. mountain range in antiquity was rich in springs and forests; today it still has extensive fir forests (Paus. 8,38,3f.). It was fam…

Methone

(685 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn)
(Μεθώνη/ Methṓnē, Μοθώνη/ Mothṓnē). [German version] [1] City on the west coast of Messana [2] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones A city on the west coast of Messana [2]. Its indigenous name was Mothṓnē (Μοθώνη on coins), after the reef called Móthōn which rose in front of it; hence the medieval and modern name Modon, Mothoni, Methoni (Μεθώνη in Thuc. 2,25,1ff. and Strab. 8,4,3). There are few ancient remains: isolated bases of city walls under the Venetian fortress and the breakwater wa…

Ceos

(652 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] [1] One of the Cyclades (Κέως; Kéōs). Northernmost of the western Cyclades (Xen. Hell. 5,4,61: Κέως; Hdt. 8,76; Bacchyl. 6,5; 16: Κέος; Kéos; Liv. 36,15: Cia), modern Kea. Twelve nautical miles off the southern tip of Attica, from which it is separated by the island of Makronisos. C. has an area of 131 km2, is mountainous (Prophitis Elias 567 m), and predominantly consists of crystalline slate. Silver deposits at the Hagios Symeon, where copper slags have also been found [9. 88f.]. On the Kephala promontory at the north-western tip of the island was a late …

Pelinna

(191 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Πελίννα; Pelínna). A city in Thessalian Hestiaeotis (Pind. Pyth. 10,4 and Str. 9,5,17: Πελινναῖον/ Pelinna ȋon; erroneously located in Phthiotis in Steph. Byz. s.v. Π., as in Plin. HN 4,32: Magnesia), the modern Paliogardiki east of Taxiarches (15 km east of Trikala); it features a well-preserved 3.2 km long wall round an area of 59 ha. P. gained independent significance only in the 4th cent. BC; from this time on, therefore, Pelinnaei appear more often in Delphic inscriptions as naopoioí (Temple economy) or hieromnemones (cf. Syll.3 p. 340f. and 444f.). P. wa…

Cerea

(104 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κέρεια; Kéreia). Island of the Cyclades (15 km2, height of more than 200 m) between Naxos and Amorgos, modern Keros (Stadiasmus maris magni 282; Geogr. Rav. 5,21: Cerus). In 425/4, it was a member of the Delian League (tribute of 630 drachmas, [1. vol. 1, 231, 308f., 501; vol. 3, 198]). Excavations uncovered an important early Cycladic settlement. Idol finds in the National Museum in Athens. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography 1 ATL. L. Bürchner, s.v. K., RE 11, 253 Philippson/Kirsten vol. 4, 146f. E. Karpodini-Demetriade, Die gri…

Crathis

(340 words)

Author(s): Parra, Maria Cecilia (Pisa) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
(Κρᾶθις; Krâthis). [German version] [3] River in Bruttium that rises near  Consentia and flows into the sea near Thurii, today known as Crati. Legend held that its water could be used to dye the hair of people and animals blond (Eur. Tro. 228; Ael. NA 12,36; Aristot. Mir. 169). The valley of C. formed the main connection between inner Bruttium and the plains of  Sybaris. The river received its name from Achaean colonists after the name of a river in their homeland (Hdt. 1,145); according to other sou…

Magnesia

(1,218 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Blümel, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Μαγνησία; Magnēsía). [German version] [1] Thessalian coastal region (Ethnicon Μάγνης, Μαγνῆτες/ Mágnēs, Magnêtes; IG IX 2,1228 b16: dat. pl. Μαγνείτεσσι/ Magneítessi 3rd cent. BC). The Thessalian coastal region of Peneius to the Gulf of Pagasae with a narrow peninsula stretching far to the south, which encloses the Gulf of Pagasae in the east and south, filled up completely by the mountains Ossa and Pelion and their foothills. The east coast toward the open sea was without a harbour and feared by sailors; in 480 B…

Midea

(306 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Μίδεια; Mídeia or Μιδέα; Midéa). [German version] [1] City in Argolis This item can be found on the following maps: Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Mineral Resources City in Argolis, in mythology (cf. Paus. 2,16; 25) one of the most important cities in the region. It had a Mycenaean citadel and palace on a steep hill about 1 km from modern Dendra in the northeast of the Argolian plain. Already abandoned in the Mycenaean period. Tholos tombs with rich finds, several burial chambers. New excavations started in 1983. Th…

Phoenix

(1,747 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Nünlist, René (Basle) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Et al.
(Φοῖνιξ/ Phoînix, Latin Phoenix). Persons P. [1-4], the mythical P. bird [5], the date palm P. [6], geographical locations P. [7-9]. [German version] [1] Mythical king of Sidon or Tyrus Mythical king of Sidon or Tyrus, son of Agenor [1] and Telephassa (Apollod. 3,2-4), brother of Europe [2],  Cadmus [1] and Cilix, according to others also their father (Hom. Il. 14, 321); other children: Phineus (Apoll. Rhod. 2, 178), Carne (Antoninus Liberalis 40). Eponym of the Phoenicians and the Poeni ( Poeni; cf. Phoenicians, Poeni). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Amyntor Son of Amyn…

Migonium

(38 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Μιγώνιον; Migṓnion). A locality on the Laconian coast south of Gythium, with a sanctuary of Aphrodite Migonitis (Paus. 3,22,1f.). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography V. Pirenne-Delforge, L'Aphrodite grecque (Kernos Suppl. 4), 1994, 212f.

Peneius

(130 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Πηνειός; Pēneiós). The large main river of Thessaly, copious in flow throughout the year. With its many tributaries - in Pelasgiotis flowing from the north and in Thessaliotis primarily from the south - it irrigates almost all of Thessaly (Thessalia). Rising in the Pindus [1] some 5 km to the east of Metsovo, the P. flows through the two great plains of Thessaly in the north and, after a stretch of 227 km through the  Tempe Valley, into the Thermaic Gulf. References: Hom. Il. 2,755; Hdt. 7,128f. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography L. Darmez…

Cyclades

(600 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κυκλάδες νῆσοι; Kykládes nêsoi, Latin Cyclades, ‘circle islands’). The modern term refers to the southern Aegean group comprising a total of more than 200 islands between the Greek mainland and the Cretan sea with the exception of the islands off the western coast of Asia Minor which essentially concurs with the original ancient concept (Hdt. 5,30). Thucydides (1,4; 2,9,4) considers that Melos and Thera belong to it, Scylax (48; 58) includes Thera, Anaphe and Astypalaea and only exclu…

Cronion

(53 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κρόνιον). A hill with pine growth (123 m) above the Altis in  Olympia with a Cronos cult only attested in literature (priesthood of the Βασίλαι/ Basílai): Xen. Hell. 7,4,14; Pind. Ol. 1,111; 5,17; 6,64; 9,3; Paus. 5,21,2; 6,19,1; 20,1f.; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,34,3. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)

Malea

(388 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] [1] South-east cape of the Peloponnese (Μαλέα ἄκρα/ Maléa ákra, Μάλεια/ Máleia, Μαλέαι/ Maléai, ἀκρωτήριον Μαλέας/ akrōtḗrion Maléas, Μαλειάων ὄρος/ Maleiáōn óros, cf. Hom. Od. 3,287; 19,187; modern Κάβο Μαλιάς, Ἅγιος Ἄγγελος). The south-east cape of the Peloponnese, feared in antiquity and in modern times, southern foothill of the Parnon (cf. the proverb passed on by Str. 8,6,20 ‘if you sail around M. forget those at home’ [1. 262ff.]). The main difficulty for ancient navigation lay in the gusty, oft…

Carpathos

(465 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κάρπαθος; Kárpathos, Lat. Carpathus). With an area of c. 332 km2the second largest island of the Dodecanes between Crete and Rhodes, with a coastal length of about 160 km (in the south the peak of Kali Limni with a height of 1220 m). The statement in Diod. Sic. (5,54,4,) that C. (the name is pre-Greek, Hom. Il. 2,676 refers to the island as Κράπαθος, Krápathos) once belonged to the kingdom of the  Minos is confirmed by archaeological finds. In the modern Karpathos on the south-eastern coast, Minoan-influenced pottery was found in a Mycenaea…

Tricaranum

(45 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Τρικάρανον; Trikáranon). Mountain ridge on the north-eastern Peloponnesus (Xen. Hell. 7,2,1; 7,2,5 f.; 7,2,11 ff.; 7,4,11; Steph. Byz. s. v. Τ.), modern Koutsi, east of Phlius (highest elevation is Hagios Elias: 730 m). Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. T., RE 6 A, 144 f.  Pritchett 2, 103-105.
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