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Promunturium, Promontorium

(561 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(“Vorgebirge”, “Kap”). [English version] [1] Promontorium Cantium Landspitze im äußersten SO von Britannia gegenüber der Mündung des Rheins (τὸ Κάντιον). Landspitze im äußersten SO von Britannia gegenüber der Mündung des Rheins, eine Landmarke für Seeleute und Geographen, h. South Foreland/Kent (vgl. Caes. Gall. 5,13,1; 14,1; 22,1; Diod. 5,21,3; Strab. 1,4,3; 4,3,3; 5,1). Cantium dürfte kelt. “Ecke” bedeuten [1]. Die exponierte Lage im äußersten SO der Insel gab den Cantiaci ihren Namen, der sich auch auf das im 6. Jh. hier entstehende Königreich Kent übertrug. Todd, Malcolm (…

Magna Graecia

(2,857 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lamboley, Jean-Luc (Grenoble)
(Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς/ Megálē Hellás, “Großgriechenland”). I. Geographie und Geschichte [English version] A. Begriff Aus geogr. Sicht überlagert der Begriff M.G. Italia, ohne jedoch damit identisch zu sein. Im 5. Jh.v.Chr. verstand man darunter die äußerste, vom Tyrrhenischen und Ion. Meer umgebene Italía, von Laus [2] nach Metapontion; nach und nach wurde M.G. für den ganzen von Griechen besiedelten Teil Süditaliens von Taras bis Kyme [2] geläufig. Der Ausdruck Megálē Hellás war schon um die Mitte des 5. Jh.v.Chr. verbreitet. Er scheint auf zwei Trad. zurückzugehen: di…

Poseidonia, Paistos, Paestum

(1,009 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Lesky, Michael (Tübingen)
Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Bundesgenossenkriege | Bundesgenossensystem | Coloniae | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Italien, Sprachen | Kolonisation | Regio, regiones | Theater | Straßen (Ποσειδωνία: Aristot. mir. 839a 30; Παιστός: Strab. 5,4,13; Ποσειδωνιάς: Skymn. 248; “oskisch” Παῖστον: Ptol. 3,1,8; Posidonia: Liv. per. 14; Plin. nat. 3,71; lat. Paestum: Plin. l.c.; Pestum: Tab. Peut. 6,5). [English version] I. Geschichte Stadt in Lucania (Aristot. l.c.) an der Südküste des Golfo di Salerno (Strab. l.c.: Ποσειδωνιάτης κόλπος, Παιστανὸ…

Metapontion

(581 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Etrusci, Etruria | Italien, Sprachen | Kolonisation | Regio, regiones | Theater (Μεταπόντιον, lat. Metapontum). Unteritalische Stadt in Lucania am Golf von Taras/Tarent, erstmals angeblich von den Pylioi des Nestor bei der Rückkehr aus Troia gegr. (Strab. 6,1,15). Die Kontinuität des achaiischen Substrats zw. myk. Epoche und Großer Kolonisation scheint im Kultbereich (Artemision della Venella und Artemision von Lusoi) weitergegangen zu sein. Ein zweite…

Kaulonia

(194 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Kolonisation (Καυλωνία, lat. Caulonia, Caulonea). Achaiische Kolonie an der Ostküste von Bruttium, von Typhon von Aigion (Paus. 6,3,12) E. 8. Jh.v.Chr. gegr., beim h. Monasterace Marina [1]. K. geriet unter die Herrschaft von Kroton, galt schließlich als krotonische Gründung (Ps.-Skymn. GGM 1, 318f.). Die anfängliche Autonomie bezeugt die im 6. Jh.v.Chr. einsetzenden Mz.-Prägung. Hauptwirtschaftszweig war der Holzhandel (Thuk. 7,25,2). 388 v.…

Kyme

(1,086 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Κύμη). [English version] [1] Ort auf Euboia Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Ägäische Koine K. auf Euboia. Die genaue Lage der ant. Ortschaft ist nicht bekannt; sie ist in der Nähe des h. Ortes K., volkstümlich Kumi, an der Ostküste von Euboia zu suchen, evtl. etwa 5 km nördl. beim Kloster Sotiros (17. Jh.), wo sich auch eine venezianische Festung befindet. Neuerdings wurden bei Murteri südl. von K. die Reste einer FH Siedlung aufgefunden, deren Bewohner schon über die Ägäis hinweg Handel betri…

Leukopetra

(86 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[English version] (Λευκόπετρα, “weißer Felsen”). Vorgebirge an der Adria-Küste südl. von Rhegion (Strab. 5,1,3; 6,1,7), h. Capo dell'Armi bei Motta S. Giovanni. Zusammen mit anderen “weißen Felsen” (Capo Leucata, Phalaron Akron, Leucopetrai Tarentinorum) kennzeichnet er die Seefahrtsroute von Griechenland nach Unteritalien und Sizilien. Der helle Felsen half den Seefahrern bei der Navigation. Muggia, Anna (Pavia) Bibliography C. Turano, Leucopetra, in: Calabria antica, 1977, 34-44  BTCGI 4, 420f.  M. Giangiulio, Tra mare e terra, in: F. Prontera (Hrsg.), La Magna Greci…

Terina

(150 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] (Τέρινα; Térina). City in Bruttium (Bruttii;  Thuc. 6,104,2; Plin.  HN 3,72) on the “Gulf of T.” (Thuc. loc.cit.: Τεριναῖος κόλπος/ Terinaíos kólpos; Plin. HN loc.cit.), presumably at Santa Eufemia Vetere (ancient remains). Founded by Croton  in the 6th cent. BC (Ps.-Scymn. 306-308; Steph. Byz. s. v. T.); after 444 BC besieged by the Thurii (Polyaenus, Strat. 2,10,1), in 356 BC conquered by the Bruttii, in 203 BC destroyed by Hannibal [4] (Str. 6,1,5). Minting of silver coins from the second quarter of the 5th cent. BC (HN 112 f.). Muggia, Anna (Pavia) Bibliography F. P…

Magna Graecia

(3,167 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lamboley, Jean-Luc (Grenoble)
(Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς/ Megálē Hellás, ‘Great Greece’). I. Geography and history [German version] A. Definition From a geographical point of view, the concept of Magna Graecia (MG) is superimposed on Italia without being identical with it. In the 5th cent. BC, it referred to the outermost part of Italia, surrounded by the Tyrrhenian and Ionian Seas from Laus [2] to Metapontium. Later MG was used for the whole part of Southern Italy that had been settled by Greeks, from Taras to Cyme [2]. The term Megálē Hellás was already widespread around the middle of the 5th cent. BC. There seem to be…

Regium

(701 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Italy, languages | Colonization | Natural catastrophes | Punic Wars | Regio, regiones | Rome | Rome (Ῥήγιον/ Rhḗgion, Lat. Regium), modern Reggio di Calabria. City on the Bruttian coast of the Fretum Siculum (Straits of Messina). Its strategic position and the lack of agriculturally useful territory committed the city to the lucrative control of the strait. Founded in the 2nd half of the 8th cent. BC shor…

Siris

(256 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization (Σῖρις; Sîris). City to the north of the mouth of the river of the same name (modern Sinni) at modern Policoro on the Ionios Kolpos (Gulf of Taranto), surrounded by fertile land (Archil. fr. 18 D.; Timaios FGrH 566 F 51 f.; Aristot. fr. 584 R.). Mythical founding by Trojans, historical founding c. 670 BC on top of a previous epichoric settlement by Colophon (under the name Polieion: Str. 6,1,14). S. was destroyed in about the middle of the 6th century BC by a coalition of Achaean co…

Scylletium

(161 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] (Σκυλλήτιον/ Skyllḗtion, Σκυλλάκιον/ Skyllákion, Latin Scolacium). City on the east coast of Bruttia on the gulf named after it ( kólpos Skyllētikós; [1. 63]; today still Golfo di Squillace); ground plan of the Roman city and building foundations from  the 1st/2nd cent. AD near modern Roccelletta di Borgia. In ancient tradition S. was seen as the northernmost place in Italía (Antiochos FGrH 555 F 5; Aristot. Pol. 1329b 13 f.; Str. 6,1,4). S. (founded in the second half of the 6th cent. BC) was at first dependent on Croton, then on Locri …

Caulonia

(229 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization (Καυλωνία; Kaulōnía, Lat. Caulonia, Caulonea). Achaean colony on the eastern coast of Bruttium, founded by Typhon of Aegium (Paus. 6,3,12) at the end of the 8th cent. BC, near the modern Monasterace Marina [1]. C. came under the rule of  Croton, and was eventually considered a Crotoniate foundation (Ps.-Scymn. GGM 1, 318f.). Its initial autonomy is verified by the minting of coins from the 6th cent. BC onwards. Its economic mainstay was…

Laus

(174 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] [1] Colony (Λᾶος; Lâos). The colony, localized on the hill of San Bartolo di Marcellina, along the river Lao in the bay of Scalea, was founded by survivors from Sybaris after the destruction of the city in 510 BC. Nearby was the heroon of Dracon, a companion of Odysseus (Str. 6,1,1). At the end of the 5th cent. BC L. was conquered by the Lucani. Here the bloody battle between the Italiot League and the Lucani took place in 389 BC. A city with remains of buildings and graves surrounded by a wall is from the 4th cent. BC. No traces of the archaic period. Muggia, Anna (Pavia) Bibliography P…

Cyme

(1,256 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Κύμη; Kýmē). [German version] [1] Settlement on Euboea This item can be found on the following maps: Aegean Koine C. on  Euboea. The exact location of the ancient settlement is unknown; it should be looked for near what is today the town of C., commonly Kumi, on the east coast of Euboea, possibly about 5 km north at the monastery of Sotiros (17th cent.) where there is also a Venetian fortress. Recently the remains of an Early Helladic settlement were found near Murteri south of C. whose inhabitants already traded…

Vibo Valentia

(504 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Coloniae (Οὐιβῶνα Οὐαλεντία/ Ouibôna Oualentía). City in Bruttium on the Mare Tyrrhenum in the south of the gulf of S. Eufémia, inland north of the foothills of Tropea at a height of 560 m near modern VV (the name was Monteleone di Calabria until 1928). Founded by Locri [2] in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC with the place name of Hipponium (Ἱππώνιον/ Hippṓnion) along with Medma to the southwest of VV in an effort to reduce the population pressure (Ps.-Skymn. 307 f.). In …

Neapolis

(2,079 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Νέα πόλις/ Néa pólis, Νεάπολις/ Neápolis, ‘New City’). [German version] [1] Town on the northern coast of the Aegean This item can be found on the following maps: | Macedonia, Macedones | Moesi, Moesia Town on the northern coast of the Aegean to the west of the mouth of the Nestus river, across from the island of Thasos, modern Kavalla (Str. 7a,1,36; Ps.-Scyl. 67), probably a Thasian colony but the exact period of foundation is unknown. Early in the 6th cent. BC, autonomous silver coinage modelled on that of Eretria [1] (HN 196…

Croton

(490 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages | Colonization | Punic Wars (Κρότων, Krótōn, Lat. Croto[n]). City founded in around 733 BC by Achaean colonists under  Myscellus from Rhypae, in response to a Delphic oracle, on the eastern coast of  Bruttium in southern Italy (Antiochus, FGrH 555 F 10). In the 6th cent. BC, C. expanded at the expense of its neighbouring colonies: important milestones were the capture and destruction of…

Promunturium, Promontorium

(612 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
('promontory', 'cape'). [German version] [1] Promontorium Cantium Headland in the far south-east of Britannia, opposite the mouth of the Rhine (τὸ Κάντιον). Headland in the far south-east of Britannia, opposite the mouth of the Rhine; a landmark for seamen and geographers, modern South Foreland/Kent ( cf. Caes. B Gall. 5,13,1; 14,1; 22,1; Diod. Sic. 5,21,3; Str. 1,4,3; 4,3,3; 5,1). Cantium probably means 'corner' in Celtic [1]. The exposed location in the far south-east of the island gave its name to the Cantiaci, and the name was also applied to the ki…

Thurii

(560 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | | Coloniae | Coloniae | Punic Wars (Θούριοι/ Thoúrioi, Latin Thurii). Greek city on the Ionios Kolpos where Sybaris [4] stood until its destruction in 510 BC, c. 134 km south-west of Tarentum (Taras[2]); today the field of ruins at the Parco di Cavallo, Parco dei Tori and Casa Bianca. After several attempts (thwarted by Croton) by displaced Sybarites to refound their city (Str. 6,1,13), the Athenians decided in 444/3 BC to found a Panhellenic co…
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