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Stentor

(108 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Στέντωρ/ Sténtōr, aptonym: 'roarer' [1]). Greek warrior at Troy, whose powerful voice is equivalent to those of 50 men. In his guise Hera gives the Greeks a dressing-down (Hom. Il. 5,784-792). S. himself does not appear anywhere. This 'lacuna' was increased in ancient exegesis by scholarly speculations (Schol. AbT Hom. Il. 5,785): he had to lose his life because he had challenged Hermes to a competition in shouting (for the motif cf. Thamyris), and is the inventor of the war trump…

Dolon

(126 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Δόλων/ Dólōn, cf. δόλος/ dólos, ‘guile’). Son of the Trojan herald Eumedes. During a night reconnaissance raid in the Greek camp, for which he had volunteered in order to gain Achilles' immortal horses, he fell into the hands of the Greek scouts Diomedes and Odysseus. In an (unsuccessful) bid to save his skin, he readily betrayed his own cause, which cost the life of the Trojan ally, the Thracian King Rhesus (Hom. Il. 10, so-called Doloneia, probably post- Iliad [1]; [Eur.] Rhes.). By contrast with this portrait of D. ─ for the Stoa he was the archetypical…

Pandarus

(805 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Πάνδαρος; Pándaros, Lat. Pandarus). [German version] [1] Trojan troop commander Trojan troop commander, son of Lycaon (but cf. also Carcabus);Verg. Aen. 5,495-497 mentions Eurythion [5] as his brother. According to Hom. Il. 4,103 and 121, P. lived in Zelia (Troas) the contingent of which was under his command (Hom. Il. 2,824-827), whilst Hom. Il. 5,105 and (implicitly) 173 identifies Lycia (Lycii, Lycia) as his country of origin eventhough the Lycian troop contingent was led by Sarpedon and Glaucus [4] (…

Calchas

(284 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Κάλχας; Kálchas, Lat. Calchas). Son of Thestor, seer and augur for the Greeks during the Trojan War who ‘knew what is, what will be, and what was’ (Hom. Il. 1.70). To the army gathered in  Aulis awaiting departure, C. correctly prophesied, based on the flight of birds, that Troy would be defeated in the tenth year of the war (Hom. Il. 2.303ff.; Kypria argumentum p. 40 Bernabé). When the Greek fleet was prevented from departing due to lack of wind, C. explained that Artemis was ang…

Copreus

(173 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Κοπρεύς; Kopreýs). [German version] [1] Servant of Eurystheus Son of  Pelops. He transmits to  Hercules the tasks ordered by  Eurystheus, who fears personal contact. For this reason, Homer reverses the normally descending genealogical line in hero epics and refers to C. as ‘the worse father of the better son’ (Hom. Il. 15,639-641). In Eur. Heracl., C. demands in Eurystheus' name the release of the  Heraclidae, who are seeking asylum from the Attic king  Demophon [2]. According to Apollod. 2,5,1, Eurystheus had cleansed C. from a blood guilt. The name is not originally derived from kópro…

Lichas

(502 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Λίχας; Líchas). [German version] [1] Messenger of Hercules Herald of Hercules [1]; he brings Hercules the garment which Deianira, jealous of Iole, had painted with the blood of the centaur Nessus (Hes. Cat. fr. 25,20-25 M-W; Soph. Trach.; Bacchyl. 16; for possible precursors and variants, see [1]). The supposed love charm causes the death of Hercules, who, in his agony, smashes the innocent L. against a rock in the sea (Soph. Trach. 772ff.; Apollod. 2,7,7? corrupt text). Later sources (Ov. Met. 9,2…

Thersites

(222 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Θερσίτης; Thersítēs). Greek warrior at Troy. In the Iliad (Hom. Il. 2,211-277) T. is a physically deformed (the corresponding description is unique in the Iliad) and quarrelsome grumbler, hated by all for his sarcastic remarks - esp. by Achilles [1] and Odysseus. After the latter has stopped the army from returning home, T. attacks Agamemnon with arguments consciously referring to those of Achilles (Hom. Il. B. 1) but also criticizing him. Odysseus silences him by attacking him verbally and physically, …

Idaeus

(243 words)

Author(s): Willi, Andreas (Basle) | Nünlist, René (Basle) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ἰδαῖος; Idaîos). [German version] [1] Epithet of Zeus Epithet of  Zeus from the Ida on Crete (Eur. fr. 472 TGF; Inscr. Creticae 1,12,1) or near Troy (Hom. Il. 24,291; Verg. Aen. 7,139; in Celaenae: Plut. Mor. 306e f.) and of  Heracles as Daktylos I. and founder of the Olympic Games (Paus. 5,7,6ff.; 8,31,3; also in Elis and Erythrae: Paus. 6,23,3; 9,27,8). Willi, Andreas (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Chryse and Dardanus Son of Chryse and  Dardanus [1] with whom he emigrates from Arcadia across Samothrace to the  Ida mountains [2], which are said to be named af…

Iphianassa

(163 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Ἰφιάνασσα; Iphiánassa). [German version] [1] Daughter of Proetus and Stheneboea Daughter of  Proetus and  Stheneboea (Hes. fr. 129,16-24 M-W), cursed together with her sisters Lysippe and Iphinoe with madness owing to disrespect to the cult of Dionysus (Hes. fr. 131 M-W) or slander of Hera (Bacchyl. 11,40ff.). Finally, by sacrificing to Artemis Proteus makes her change Hera's mind. According to another version (Pherecydes, FGrH 3 F 114; Hdt. 9,34), the seer  Melampus heals the daughters after haggling fo…

Laestrygones

(260 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Λαιστρυγόνες; Laistrýgónes). A mythic and fairy-tale-like people of man-eating giants, who raise cattle but do not engage in agriculture (cf. Cyclopes). In the course of his wanderings, Odysseus lands in their country, where the sun never sets. After an initial friendly greeting of his scouts by the king's daughter, the mood shifts when they catch sight of the giant queen. The king, summoned by his wife, devours one of the Greeks, and the rest of the L. destroy the entire fleet.…

Thamyris

(160 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Θάμυρις/ Thámyris, also Θαμύρας/ Thamýras). Mythical singer from Thrace (cf. Orpheus), who in human overestimation of himself challenges the Muses to compete with him and, naturally, loses (for the motif, cf. Marsyas [1], Niobe, Capaneus). As a punishment they take his gift of song away (again) and maim him (Hom. Il. 2,594-600, without further specifying this; Hes. Cat. 65 speaks of blinding). The same subject was probably dealt with by Sophocles in his tragedy Thamyris (TrGF 4 F 236-245), in which the poet himself appeared as an actor (Soph. Test. Ha …

Cilla

(241 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] [1] Name of two settlements (Κίλλα; Kílla, Lat. Cilla). There seem to have been at least two settlements of this name. One is mentioned in Hdt. 1,149; it was one of the eleven Aeolian cities, and, according to [1. 216f.], was not located in the Troad. The other is mentioned in the ‘Iliad’ (Hom. Il. 1,38; 452) and was supposedly located near Chryse and Thebe -- probably north-west of the bay of Adramytteum; an exact localization has not been possible as yet. Different from that was perhaps…

Iambe

(142 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Ἰάμβη; Iámbē). Maid in the house of  Celeus, where  Demeter, mourning her abducted daughter Persephone, accepts nothing but a simple chair, which I. offers to her (H. Hom. 2,192-197; reverse ritual related to thrónōsis, placing the initiant on a foot stool [1]). I. makes Demeter laugh with her cheeky jokes and provocative insults, thus improving her mood (H. Hom. 2,202-204, cf. SH 680,51ff.). This reflects the cultic practice of aischrologia (ritual insult). Evidently, there is a connection between the mythical figure of I. and the literary genre …

Cebriones

(89 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Κεβριόνης; Kebriónēs). Bastard son of  Priamus, half-brother of  Hector, who makes him his chariot driver after Archeptolemus' death (Hom. Il. 8,318f.). C. participates in the storming of the Greeks' ship camp; the chariot is entrusted to a weaker fighter for this time period (ibid. 12,91ff.). Finally, Patroclus kills C. with the throw of a stone and ridicules him as he falls from the chariot by comparing him with a diver (ibid. 16,737-750). Nünlist, René (Basle) Bibliography P. Wathelet, Dictionnaire des Troyens de l'Iliade, Vol. 1, 1988, 677-679.

Rhesus

(268 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (῾Ρῆσος/ Rhêsos, Latin Rhesus). King of Thrace, son of Eïoneus (Hom. Il. 10,138) or of the river god Strymon ([Eur.] Rhes. 279). R. and his snow-white horse appear only in the tenth year of the war as an ally of the Trojans and dies on the first night, without having played any part in battle. Caught on his nightly tour of reconnoissance, Dolon has betrayed R. and his men. Diomedes kills the men in their sleep, as R. has foreseen in a nightmare, and Odysseus makes off with the horses…

Sarpedon

(481 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Σαρπηδών/ Sarpēdṓn). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and Laodameia [1]. Son of Zeus and Laodameia [1]. In the Trojan War, S. and his cousin Glaucus [4] command the Lycians (Lycii), the strongest and remotest allies of the Trojans (Hom. Il. 2,876-877; the name S. is also of Lycian origin [1]). Zeus' son S. wins a duel with Zeus' grandson Tlepolemus (ibid. 5,628-662) and plays a decisive part in storming the defensive wall around the Greek camp (ibid. 12,290-471). Here his rousing speech to Glaucus (ibid. …

Cedalium

(100 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Κηδαλίων, κήδαλον, Kēdalíōn, kḗdalon, which probably describes a tool: ‘poker’?). Comes from the island of Naxos, initiates  Hephaestus into the blacksmith's craft at the request of his mother  Hera (schol. Hom. Il. 14,296). On Lemnos, Hephaestus makes C. the leader of blinded  Orion. Sitting on his shoulders, C. leads Orion towards the sun, through whose rays Orion is healed of his blindness (Hes. fr. 148a M-W; Eratosth. Katasterismoi 32; Apollod. 1,4,3). Scarcely more than the title is known of Sophocles' satyr play ‘C.. (TrGF IV fr. 328-333). Nünlist, René (Basle) Bibliography R. Vollkommer, s.v. K., LIMC 5.1, 978-979.

Capaneus

(154 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Καπανεύς; Kapaneús). Son of Hipponous [3], married to  Evadne [2] and father of  Sthenelus. C. is one of the  Seven against Thebes (and is therefore to be included in the Theban epics even if he does not appear in the surviving fragments). His boast…

Coeranus

(203 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)

Polydamas

(428 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Πολυδάμας/ Polydámas, in Homer with metrical lengthening Πουλυδάμας/ Poulydámas). [German version] [1] Trojan Trojan, son of Panthous. On the basis of his experience P. possesses an understanding of the past and the future. As an astute and level-headed counsellor he represents the pessimistic alter ego of Hector, the town’s defender, who was born on the same day as P. Nevertheless, at the decisive moment P.’ sensible advice (retreat into the town) is not taken heed of. At this occasion, his character is (n…
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