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Sophists

(1,451 words)

Author(s): Narcy, Michel (Paris)
(from ἡ σοφιστική, sc. τέχνη/ hē sophistikḗ, sc. téchnē, 'the sophistic, sc. art/method', e.g. Pl. Soph. 231b 8). [German version] I. Terminology The use of the word 'sophistic' as a noun, as has been adopted into modern languages, seems not to predate Philostratus [5] (VS 481, AD 237/8). His distinction between an 'ancient' ( archaía) and a Second Sophistic ( deutéra) was taken up in 1903 by Hermann Diels, who gave the title Ältere Sophistik ('Elder Sophistic') to the final section of his Fragmente der Vorsokratiker ('Fragments of the Presocratics'). Most of the authors collect…

Prodicus

(454 words)

Author(s): Narcy, Michel (Paris)
[German version] (Πρόδικος/ Pródikos) from Ceos. Sophist and philosopher, b. in Iulis on the island of Ceos (84 A 1 DK) probably between 470 and 460 BC; contemporary of Democritus [1], Gorgias and Protagoras [2], who may have been P.' teacher. He apparently outlived Socrates, as can be deduced from the mention of him in Pl. Ap. 19e (as did Gorgias and Hippias). Like the latter two men, he was an envoy for the city of Ceos and an itinerant sophist (Pl. Hp. mai. 282c). Aristophanes [3] linked P. with…

Polus

(313 words)

Author(s): Narcy, Michel (Paris) | Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster)
(Πῶλος; Pôlos). [German version] [1] Sophist from Agrigentum Sophist, from Agrigentum. Sometimes mentioned as a pupil of Empedocles (31 A 19 DK), sometimes of Gorgias (82 A 2 and 4 DK; Philostr. VS 1,13). This is why Plato makes him one of Socrates' conversation partners in his Gorgias (461b-481b). The technical treatise Μουσεῖα λόγων ( Mouseîa lógōn, lit. 'Rhetorical Museum'), attributed to him in Pl. Phdr. 267b-c, may also be the one that is alluded to in Pl. Grg. 462c. The Suda (s.v. Πῶλος) gives P. as the teacher of Licymnius [2]. Rhetoric; Sophists Narcy, Michel (Paris) …

Protagoras

(1,206 words)

Author(s): Narcy, Michel (Paris) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
(Πρωταγόρας; Prōtagóras). [German version] [1] Of Abdera, the first sophist, 5th cent. BC P. of Abdera. The first sophist, 5th cent. BC, originator of the homo-mensura doctrine, known only from Plato's dialogue of the same name and from Diogenes Laertius. Narcy, Michel (Paris) [German version] A. Life P.' date of birth and death are obscure. In Plato's dialogue Protagoras (Pl. Prt. 317c = 80 A 5 DK) - named after him - he says that he could be the father of all those present. That would include Socrates (born 469/8 BC), so P. must have been born no la…

Hippias

(937 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Narcy, Michel (Paris)
(Ἱππίας/ Hippías, Ion. Ἱππίης/ Hippíēs). [German version] [1] Eldest son of Peisistratus, his father's heir in 528/7 BC Eldest son of  Peisistratus from his first marriage to an Athenian woman. Together with his brothers  Hipparchus [1] and Thessalus he assumed his father's inheritance in 528/7 BC and continued his father's moderate politics (Thuc. 6,54-55; [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 18,1), e.g. as archon in 526/7. However, when Hipparchus was murdered at the Panathenaea of 514 BC, H. disarmed the population, ordered t…

Lycophron

(1,239 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Narcy, Michel (Paris)
(Λυκόφρων; Lykóphrōn). [German version] [1] Younger son of Periander of Corinth The younger son of Periander of Corinth and Melissa, daughter of Procles of Epidaurus. In the war between Periander and his father-in-law, L. is sent to Cercyra and murdered there by the Cercyraeans, who presumably considered him a tyrant and successor of Periander. Legend-building in an early phase can be seen in Herodotus (3,50-53; cf. Diog. Laert. 1,94f.; Nicolaus of Damascus FGrH 90 F 60). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [German version] [2] Founder of the tyrannis in Pherai, c. 404/390 BC Founder of the t…

Gorgias

(1,521 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Narcy, Michel (Paris) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Γοργίας; Gorgías). [German version] [1] Sculptor, late 6th cent. BC Sculptor who created bronze and marble votive offerings on the Athenian acropolis in the late 6th cent. BC. The bases are the only extant parts and suggest mostly statues of horses or riders. Pliny (HN 34,49) refers to G. with wrong biographical dates, or perhaps refers to a homonymous sculptor. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, no. 356a (sources) Loewy, no. 36 A. E. Raubitschek, Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis, 1949, no. 5, 65, 77, 147 B. S. Ridgway, The Archaic Style in Greek Sculpture…

Callicles

(471 words)

Author(s): Narcy, Michel (Paris) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Καλλικλῆς; Kalliklês). [German version] [1] Collocutor in Plato's Gorgias Collocutor in Plato's ‘ Gorgias; taking it as his premise that nature ranks above the law, he advocates the right of the stronger (Pl. Grg. 483 c-d). This is the lesson of the  Gorgias (Gorg. Encomium Helenae 6), understood by Aristotle (Aristot. Soph. el. 12,173a 8-16) as the conflict between truth and the opinion of the majority. C. is, however, no Sophist: on the contrary, he distances himself from them (Pl. Grg. 520a). From his So…