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Rechtfertigungslehre

(777 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
In Anknüpfung an Gedanken des Apostels Paulus hatte der Kirchenvater Augustinus um 400 seine Erwählungs- und Gnadenlehre ausgearbeitet: Gott qualifiziere die von ihm vor aller Zeit aus der verlorenen Sündenmenschheit Erwählten für das ewige Heil, indem er ihnen durch die kirchl. Lehre und die Sakramente seine Gnade mitteile. Dies befähige die Erwählten, sein Gesetz zu erfüllen, wozu ihr durch die Erbsünde gelähmter eigener Wille unfähig sei. Fraglich blieb dabei, wie sich in Gott die richterlich…

Offenbarung

(1,179 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
1. Grundlagen Im Zuge der Neuformierung des erkenntnistheoretischen Problembewusstseins in der Hochscholastik des 13. Jh.s ( Thomas von Aquin, Johannes Duns Scotus) erhielt der O.-Begriff seine dauerhaften Konturen: O. (lat. revelatio) bezeichnet die Selbstkundgabe Gottes, die dem Menschen Gotteserkenntnis und Heilsteilhabe ermöglicht. O. ist demnach schon in der Schöpfung geschehen, doch wegen der Sünde vermag sie den Menschen nicht mehr hinreichend zu leiten, obwohl sich Gott jedem innerlich im Gewissen und äußerlich in den Sch…

Monotheismus

(919 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
1. Definition M. bezeichnet den religiösen Glauben an die bzw. die metaphysische Überzeugung von der Einheit, Einzigartigkeit und Einzigkeit Gottes. Der Kunstbegriff wurde 1660 von dem anglikanischen Theologen Henry More, einem der Cambridge Platonists, geprägt. Sein Ursprungskontext war das seit der frühen Aufklärung aufkommende Bemühen um ein histor. Verständnis der Vielgestaltigkeit positiver Religion und die Einordnung des Christentums in die Religionsgeschichte. Als die histor. Kenntnisse präziser wurden, zeigte sich immer deutlicher, wie fließend di…

Justification, doctrine of

(835 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
Building on the thought of the apostle Paul, c. 400 the church father Augustine developed his doctrine of election and grace: God qualifies those elected by him for eternal salvation before all time from the damned mass of sinful humanity by imparting his grace to them through the teaching of the church and the sacraments. This enables the elect to fulfill his law, something their own will, crippled by original sin, is incapable of. This left the question of how the justice of God as judge is re…
Date: 2019-10-14

Ramsay

(264 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[English Version] Ramsay, Andreas Michael (Chevalier R.; 1686 Ayr, Schottland – 6.5.1743 St. Germain en Laye bei Paris). Der Bäckerssohn wurde schon als Jugendlicher vom Streit zw. Presbyterianismus (Presbyterianer) und Episkopalismus abgestoßen. Als Student tendierte er zum Deismus, fand aber auch Anschluß an myst.-spiritualistische Kreise, den er als Hauslehrer in London intensivierte. Auf dem Kontinent seit 1710, weilte er zunächst bei P. Poiret in Rijnsburg. Dann diente er F. Fénelon in Cambrai …

Maimbourg, Louis

(172 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Jan 10, 1610, Nancy – Aug 13, 1686, Paris). In 1626 Maimbourg entered the Societas Jesu (Jesuits) and worked as a preacher and teacher. After anti-Jansenist (C.O. Jansen, Jansenism) polemics, from 1673 he published historical writings which championed the authority of the Catholic Church and glorified Louis XIV. After works on Arianism (Arius), the iconoclastic controversy (Veneration of images: VI), the Crusades and the fall of the empire, in 1680 and 1682 he published general accounts of Lutheranism (answered by V.L. v. Seckendorf, Commentarius de Lutheranismo,…

St. Andrews, University of

(183 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] Because Scotland maintained its allegiance to the Avignon pope Benedict XIII to the bitter end during the Great Western Schism, it was impossible for Scots to study on the continent. In 1410 the bishop of St. Andrews founded the oldest Scottish university (theology, canon law, the artes). Successor bishops added additional colleges. St. Leonard’s College was a gateway for Reformation theology in Scotland, but it was not until 1559 that leading representatives of the university gave university support to the Reformation. Their…

Barclay, John

(148 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Jan 28, 1582, Pont à Mousson, Lorraine, where his father, a lawyer from Scotland, taught at the university – Aug 15, 1621, Rome) lived from 1606 until 1616 in London during the reign of James I. A roman à clef criticized celebrities of the time, but also the Puritans, the papacy, and the Jesuits ( Euphormio, 1605–1607, with indexes; Apologia, 1611). Icon Animorum (1614) reproduced national stereotypes. As a Catholic, Barclay was unable to obtain an influential position and went to Rome in 1617, where he established himself by a Paraenesis ad Sectarios (1617). In 1621, h…

Scotland

(2,422 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] Scotland, the northern portion of the main island of Great Britain, together with the Hebrides, the Orkney Islands, and the Shetland Islands (78,764 km2), comprises the northern Highlands and the southern Lowlands. Only some 20% of its area is arable farmland. The name recalls the Celtic Scotti, who came from Ireland and formed tribal alliances with Picts, Britons (Britain), and Angles (see also Anglo-Saxons) as they expanded southwards. Scotland’s capital is Edinburgh. Since 1707 Scotland has been part…

Monarchomachs

(831 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] This polemical neologism means “fighter against (absolute) monarchy,” and was defined by William Barclay in his De regno et regali potestate (1600). The terrorism that reached its peak in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre raised among French Protestants (Huguenots) the question of the limits of the duty of obedience and the right of resistance (Resistance, Right of) in relation to tyrannical monarchs. François Hotman, T. Beza, L. Danaeu, and Stephanus Junius Brutus (probably a pseudonym for P. du Pl…

Exomologesis

(283 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] The term ἐξομολογεῖσϑαι/ exhomologeísthai and its derivatives, adopted from the LXX and early Judaism, formed part of the earliest Christian vocabulary with the double meaning of a praising confession to God or Christ and a confession of sin (characteristic passages include Phil. 2:11 and Rom. 14:11, both of which draw from Isa. 45:23 LXX; cf. also 1 Clem. 51:3 with 52:1f. and Herm. Sim. IX, 23.4f.). The word field soon also began referring to a liturgically fixed confession of sin within the eucharistic worship service ( Did. 4.14; 14.1). In Tertullian ( De paenitentia, …

Abbadie, Jacques

(128 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (1656, Nay, Béarn – Nov 25, 1727, London). Educated in Huguenot academies (Huguenots), Abbadie was an important leader of the refugee community in Berlin from 1680 to 1689. As a field chaplain, he participated in the Ireland campaign of William III of England, and lived thereafter on benefices of the Anglican Church (beginning in 1699, he was …

Fifth Monarchists

(228 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Quintomonarchists, Fifth Monarchy Men). In republican England (III, 1.d; 1649–1653), the Fifth Monarchists did not form a constituted ecclesiastical organization of their own. Rather, the term refers to the exponents of a radically chiliastic (Millenarianism/Chiliasm) trend operative within various other groups (Congregationalists [Congregationalism], Independents, Particular Baptists [Baptists: II]; see also Dissenters). The return of Jesus Christ (Parousia) to rule for 1000 yea…

Lehnin Prophecy

(161 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] These 100 rhymed Latin hexameters were first attested in 1693 and became better known in the early 18th century. They were attributed to the Cistercian monk Hermann von Lehnin in Brandenburg (c. 1300). The verses describe suggestively the Brandenburg rulers beginning with the house of Askanier; the last figures with identifiable traits are Prince Elector Friedrich Wilhelm I and his successor. The Reformation, with the abolition of the monastery, marks the turn for the worse. Until…

Metternich, Wolf de

(174 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Chursdorf near Küstrin [Kostrzyn]) – Dec 17, 1731, Rudolstadt). The last in the line of Reformed Metternichs from Chursdorf, Wolf de Metternich probably studied law; he began his career in the service of the margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach and Brandenburg-Bayreuth (delegate to the imperial diet), which he left in 1726 to enter the service of the duke of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. Known as an alchemist, he also published theological texts under pseudonyms (Aletophilus, Hilarius Theom…

Pordage, John

(174 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (1607, London – Dec 11, 1681, London), son of a grocer. Pordage studied medicine and theology at Oxford, while pursuing interests in alchemy and astrology. In 1644 he was ordained in the Anglican Church, but retired to London in 1670. Under Cromwell (England: III, 1.d), Pordage was charged with heresy. Not until the Restoration was he restored to his living (1660). Inspired by the works of J. Böhme (ET: 1642–1662) and his own visions, he developed a theosophical system (Theosophy)…

Duperron, Jacques Davy

(158 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Nov 25, 1556, near Bern – Sep 5, 1618, Paris). Born to a Norman Huguenot family in temporary exile, Duperron joined the court of Henry III of France. As royal professor of languages, mathematics, and philosophy, he converted to Catholicism in 1581. Henry IV nominated him bishop of Evreux; Duperron assisted in his (second) conversion to Catholicism. He subsequently …

Ramus, Petrus

(516 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Pierre de la Ramée; 1515, Cuts, Picardy – Aug 28, 1572, Paris), came from an impoverished aristocratic family; he attended the Collège de Navarre in Paris from the age of 12, and gained his M.A. in 1536. His polemics against Aristotelianism caused a sensation; in 1544 King Francis I prohibited him from teaching and publishing on philosophical subjects. Until this ban was lifted in 1547 by King Francis II, Ramus devoted himself to mathematics. From 1551 he ¶ held important administrative posts at the University of Paris. From the early 1560s he was a Protes…

Planck, Gottlieb Jakob

(524 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Nov 15, 1751, Nürtingen – Aug 31, 1833, Göttingen). After going through the normal course of theological education in Württemberg, Planck began teaching at the Karlsschule in Stuttgart in 1781. Appointed to a chair at Göttingen in 1784, he remained there as professor of theology and holder of other high academic and ecclesiastical offices until his ¶ death. He set out to design a new theological system reduced to the essential content of Scripture ( Einleitung in die theologischen Wissenschaften, 1794–1795); he understood this program as an attempt to combi…

Liguori, Alfons Maria de (Saint)

(347 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Sep 27, 1696, Marianella, near Naples – Aug 1, 1787, monastery at Nocera de' Pagani, near Salerno). Liguori, the son of a naval officer, earned his doctorate in law at the age of 16; in 1714 he began to practice law, but left the profession in 1723 after losing a case. As a priest, he conducted popular missions. On Nov 9, 1732, he founded the Congregatio Sanctissimi Redemptoris (Redemptorists; approved in 1749 by Benedict XIV, Pope), with a ministry of preaching and pastoral care…
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