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Beichte

(2,324 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Ohst, Martin | Ivanov, Vladimir
1. Definition und BedeutungDie B. (von mhdt. bigiht, zusammengezogen bīht[e]: Aussage, Bekenntnis; Übersetzung von lat. confessio) ist die vom frühen MA bis teilweise in die Gegenwart gebräuchlichste Form des kirchlichen Bußverfahrens. Der Streit um die Frage, ob der B. der Charakter eines Sakraments zuzuerkennen und wie ihre kirchenamtliche Regulierung und ihre Ausübung in der Religionspraxis zu gestalten sei, ist zu einem wesentlichen Differenzierungsfaktor zwischen den drei großen christl. Konfessionen gewo…
Date: 2019-11-19

Rechtfertigungslehre

(745 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
In Anknüpfung an Gedanken des Apostels Paulus hatte der Kirchenvater Augustinus um 400 seine Erwählungs- und Gnadenlehre ausgearbeitet: Gott qualifiziere die von ihm vor aller Zeit aus der verlorenen Sündenmenschheit Erwählten für das ewige Heil, indem er ihnen durch die kirchl. Lehre und die Sakramente seine Gnade mitteile. Dies befähige die Erwählten, sein Gesetz zu erfüllen, wozu ihr durch die Erbsünde gelähmter eigener Wille unfähig sei. Fraglich blieb dabei, wie sich in Gott die richterliche Gerechtigkeit und die schöpferische Gnade zueinander verhalte…
Date: 2019-11-19

Offenbarung

(1,101 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
1. GrundlagenIm Zuge der Neuformierung des erkenntnistheoretischen Problembewusstseins in der Hochscholastik des 13. Jh.s ( Thomas von Aquin, Johannes Duns Scotus) erhielt der O.-Begriff seine dauerhaften Konturen: O. (lat. revelatio) bezeichnet die Selbstkundgabe Gottes, die dem Menschen Gotteserkenntnis und Heilsteilhabe ermöglicht. O. ist demnach schon in der Schöpfung geschehen, doch wegen der Sünde vermag sie den Menschen nicht mehr hinreichend zu leiten, obwohl sich Gott jedem innerlich im Gewissen und äußerlich in den Schöp…
Date: 2019-11-19

Monotheismus

(863 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
1. DefinitionM. bezeichnet den religiösen Glauben an die bzw. die metaphysische Überzeugung von der Einheit, Einzigartigkeit und Einzigkeit Gottes. Der Kunstbegriff wurde 1660 von dem anglikanischen Theologen Henry More, einem der Cambridge Platonists, geprägt. Sein Ursprungskontext war das seit der frühen Aufklärung aufkommende Bemühen um ein histor. Verständnis der Vielgestaltigkeit positiver Religion und die Einordnung des Christentums in die Religionsgeschichte.Als die histor. Kenntnisse präziser wurden, zeigte sich immer deutlicher, wie fließend di…
Date: 2019-11-19

Confession

(2,565 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Ohst, Martin | Ivanov, Vladimir
1. Definition and meaningConfession (from Latin  confessio) has been the most common form of the church’s penitential discipline from the early Middle Ages until (to some extent) the present. The German equivalent is  Beichte, from MHG  bigiht, contracted  bīht[e]: “declaration, avowal”. The debate over whether it should be recognized as a sacrament and how it should be formally regulated and practiced by the church became a major bone of contention among the three main Christian religious groups. These differences have had not only…
Date: 2019-10-14

Monotheism

(932 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
1. DefinitionMonotheism denotes the religious belief in or metaphysical conviction of the unity, uniqueness, and singularity of one god (Faith). The neologism was coined in 1660 by the Anglican theologian Henry More, one of the Cambridge Platonists. Its original context was the effort, underway from the early Enlightenment, to arrive at a historical understanding of the diversity of positive religion and to position Christianity in the history of religion.The more historical knowledge developed, the clearer it became that the boundaries between polytheism…
Date: 2020-04-06

Justification, doctrine of

(835 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
Building on the thought of the apostle Paul, c. 400 the church father Augustine developed his doctrine of election and grace: God qualifies those elected by him for eternal salvation before all time from the damned mass of sinful humanity by imparting his grace to them through the teaching of the church and the sacraments. This enables the elect to fulfill his law, something their own will, crippled by original sin, is incapable of. This left the question of how the justice of God as judge is re…
Date: 2019-10-14

Maimbourg, Louis

(172 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Jan 10, 1610, Nancy – Aug 13, 1686, Paris). In 1626 Maimbourg entered the Societas Jesu (Jesuits) and worked as a preacher and teacher. After anti-Jansenist (C.O. Jansen, Jansenism) polemics, from 1673 he published historical writings which championed the authority of the Catholic Church and glorified Louis XIV. After works on Arianism (Arius), the iconoclastic controversy (Veneration of images: VI), the Crusades and the fall of the empire, in 1680 and 1682 he published general accounts of Lutheranism (answered by V.L. v. Seckendorf, Commentarius de Lutheranismo,…

St. Andrews, University of

(183 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] Because Scotland maintained its allegiance to the Avignon pope Benedict XIII to the bitter end during the Great Western Schism, it was impossible for Scots to study on the continent. In 1410 the bishop of St. Andrews founded the oldest Scottish university (theology, canon law, the artes). Successor bishops added additional colleges. St. Leonard’s College was a gateway for Reformation theology in Scotland, but it was not until 1559 that leading representatives of the university gave university support to the Reformation. Their…

Barclay, John

(148 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Jan 28, 1582, Pont à Mousson, Lorraine, where his father, a lawyer from Scotland, taught at the university – Aug 15, 1621, Rome) lived from 1606 until 1616 in London during the reign of James I. A roman à clef criticized celebrities of the time, but also the Puritans, the papacy, and the Jesuits ( Euphormio, 1605–1607, with indexes; Apologia, 1611). Icon Animorum (1614) reproduced national stereotypes. As a Catholic, Barclay was unable to obtain an influential position and went to Rome in 1617, where he established himself by a Paraenesis ad Sectarios (1617). In 1621, h…

Economic History

(2,672 words)

Author(s): Fischer, Wolfram | Ohst, Martin
[German Version] I. General – II. Church I. General Economic history, simply speaking, is concerned with how over the centuries people have earned their livelihood, have obtained for themselves food, clothing, and shelter, have communicated with each other sometimes across rivers, mountains, and oceans, have met, bartered (Exchange), traded (Trade), developed m…

Mirbt, Carl

(206 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Jun 21, 1860, Gnadenfrei, Silesia – Sep 27, 1929, Göttingen). From a Brethren background (Bohemian and Moravian Brethren), Mirbt gained ¶ his Habilitation in 1888 in Göttingen as a student of H. Reuter and obtained a non-tenured professorship in church history in Marburg in 1889, a tenured position in 1890, followed by a professorship in Göttingen in 1911, where he attained emeritus status in 1928. He achieved initial prominence with studies on the Investiture Controversy ( Die Publizistik im Zeitalter Gregors VII. of 1894 is the standard work on the topic), …

Müller, Karl

(304 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Sep 3, 1852, Langenburg, Württemberg – Feb 10, 1940, Tübingen). After theological training in Württemberg, Müller developed into a historian, making his mark as a medievalist with works on Louis the Bavarian, the Franciscans and the Waldenses. He gained his habilitation In Berlin in 1890, became an assistant professor there in 1882 and in 1884 in Halle, in 1886 full professor in Gießen, in 1891 in Breslau, and in 1903 in Tübingen. From his time in Gießen, Müller's life work was i…

Abbadie, Jacques

(128 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (1656, Nay, Béarn – Nov 25, 1727, London). Educated in Huguenot academies (Huguenots), Abbadie was an important leader of the refugee community in Berlin from 1680 to 1689. As a field chaplain, he participated in the Ireland campaign of William III of England, and lived thereafter on benefices of the Anglican Church (beginning in 1699, he was …

Fifth Monarchists

(228 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Quintomonarchists, Fifth Monarchy Men). In republican England (III, 1.d; 1649–1653), the Fifth Monarchists did not form a constituted ecclesiastical organization of their own. Rather, the term refers to the exponents of a radically chiliastic (Millenarianism/Chiliasm) trend operative within various other groups (Congregationalists [Congregationalism], Independents, Particular Baptists [Baptists: II]; see also Dissenters). The return of Jesus Christ (Parousia) to rule for 1000 yea…

Lehnin Prophecy

(161 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] These 100 rhymed Latin hexameters were first attested in 1693 and became better known in the early 18th century. They were attributed to the Cistercian monk Hermann von Lehnin in Brandenburg (c. 1300). The verses describe suggestively the Brandenburg rulers beginning with the house of Askanier; the last figures with identifiable traits are Prince Elector Friedrich Wilhelm I and his successor. The Reformation, with the abolition of the monastery, marks the turn for the worse. Until…

Metternich, Wolf de

(174 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Chursdorf near Küstrin [Kostrzyn]) – Dec 17, 1731, Rudolstadt). The last in the line of Reformed Metternichs from Chursdorf, Wolf de Metternich probably studied law; he began his career in the service of the margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach and Brandenburg-Bayreuth (delegate to the imperial diet), which he left in 1726 to enter the service of the duke of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. Known as an alchemist, he also published theological texts under pseudonyms (Aletophilus, Hilarius Theom…

Banishment

(2,105 words)

Author(s): Schulz, Hermann | Schäfer-Lichtenberger, Christa | Pearson, Birger A. | Ohst, Martin
[German Version] I. Comparative Religion – II. Biblical – III. Church History I. Comparative Religion The terminology and conception of banishment develop primarily in the context of legal language. Commandments and prohibitions require sanctioning, must become authoritative, and are thus connected with magical incantations (Magi). In popular culture, the verbs “to ban” and “to arrest” …

Pordage, John

(174 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (1607, London – Dec 11, 1681, London), son of a grocer. Pordage studied medicine and theology at Oxford, while pursuing interests in alchemy and astrology. In 1644 he was ordained in the Anglican Church, but retired to London in 1670. Under Cromwell (England: III, 1.d), Pordage was charged with heresy. Not until the Restoration was he restored to his living (1660). Inspired by the works of J. Böhme (ET: 1642–1662) and his own visions, he developed a theosophical system (Theosophy)…

Duperron, Jacques Davy

(158 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Nov 25, 1556, near Bern – Sep 5, 1618, Paris). Born to a Norman Huguenot family in temporary exile, Duperron joined the court of Henry III of France. As royal professor of languages, mathematics, and philosophy, he converted to Catholicism in 1581. Henry IV nominated him bishop of Evreux; Duperron assisted in his (second) conversion to Catholicism. He subsequently …
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