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Sebaste

(121 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σεβαστή/ Sebast ). City in Phrygia, founded under Augustus by means of synoikismós (involving, i.a., Διοσκωπητεῖς/ Dioskōpēteís, probably also Φλημεῖς/ Phlēmeís; [1. 85 f. no. 16]) on the eastern edge of the valley of the Sinder (Σινδρός/ Sindrós, coins HN 684; modern Banaz river) (IGR IV 635; 682 l. 18). Hellenistic wall remains at modern Selçikler, 2 km to the southwest of Sivaslı (cf. name!) suggest that a polis already existed there. A portion of the ancient road to the east of Selçikler has been discovered. Bishopric in Late Antiquity (Hierocles, Synekdemos 6…

Apuli, Apulia

(385 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Oscan tribe between the Daunii and the  Frentani (Str. 6,3,8); after the establishment of Roman rule (Liv. 8,25; 37; 9,12 ff.; 20,4 ff. for 317 BC) they gave their name to the territory from the Adriatic (with the Diomedeae insulae, today Isole Tremiti) to the  Appenninus, with the Bradanus (today Brádano) flowing into the Gulf of  Tarentum, from the  Tifernus to  Calabria. Mesozoic limestone and dolomite determine the soil on   mons Garganus (today Monte Gargano with the Montenero 1012 m), and their topsoil does on the Apulian pl…

Paryadres

(128 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Παρυάδρης/ Paryádrēs, Lat. Pariades, Parihedri montes). Part of the Alpide belt in the region of Pontus and Armenia, which may be roughly identified with the eastern part of the North Anatolian border range (Karadeniz Dağları, with the Kaçkar Dağı, 3937 m) and the Alborz (with the Damāvand, 5604 m). In the north, the P. slopes down over a narrow coastal plain to the Pontos Euxeinos (river valleys: Halys, Iris [3]); to the south, it slopes down along the earthquake-prone North Anatolia…

Meris

(141 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (ἡ μερίς; merís, ‘part, portion’, Verb μερίζειν; merízein). As a term in Greek administrative language, meris describes any type of systematic division and is used e.g. generally in Hellenistic administrative practice, especially e. g. in the Ptolemaic-Roman administration of Egypt in which the Arsinoite nomós [2] was divided into three merídes (OGIS 177,8 f., 2nd cent. BC). There is another interpretation in the territorial administrative classification in Egypt which describes it as the smallest element in the series nomós, tópos [1], kṓmē (B.), meris and henc…

Grumentum

(91 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | | Coloniae Town in Lucania ( Lucani) where the Sora (modern Sciaura) flows into the Aciris (modern Agri) (cf. Str. 6,1,3; Ptol. 3,1,70); ruins 1.5 km east of Grumento. Place of fierce battles in the 2nd Punic War (Liv. 23,37,10; 27,41,3) and in the Social War (cf. App. B Civ. 1,41). Municipium, tribus Pomptina ( regio III). Pliny speaks of the good wine from Lagarina near G. (HN 14,69). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Caeadas

(77 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Καιάδας; Kaiádas). A ravine in Taygetus into which the Spartans pushed criminals and prisoners of war condemned to death. It is presumed to be located south-east of Mistra near Parori [1] or north-west of Mistra near Tripi [2]. Documented in: Καιάδας, Thuc. 1,134,4; Κεάδας, Paus. 4,18,4; Καιέτας, Str. 8,5,7. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 E. Curtius, Peloponnesos 2, 1852, 252 2 O. Rayet, in: Annales de la Faculté des Lettres de Bordeaux 2, 1880, 353 n. 2.

Zaraspadum

(33 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] City in modern Afghanistan, according to the context in Plin. HN 6,94 in the area of the Etymander, not precisely located. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. Zaraspad(r)um, RE 9 A, 2317 f.

Halycus

(70 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἅλυκος; Halykos). River (84 km long) on the south-west coast of Sicily, empties into the sea north-west of Capo Bianco near Heraclea Minoa, modern Plátani. The H. was mentioned in the treaties between Dionysius I (376 or 374 BC: Stv 2, no. 261) and Timoleon (339 BC: Stv 2, no. 344) respectively and the Carthaginians as the demarcation line between the two spheres of control. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Triparadisus

(94 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τριπαράδεισος τῆς ἄνω Συρίας/ Triparádeisos tês ánō Syrías, literally 'in Upper Syria', Diod. Sic. 18,39,1; 19,12,2). Ancient city in northern Syria; to date there has been no success in identifying it unambiguously. It is presumed that it can be identified with Paradisus on the upper Orontes [7] (Jusiye? cf. [1. 112]). It was in T. that the Diadochi agreed on a redistribution of Alexander's empire after the death of Perdiccas [4] in 321 BC. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 R. Dussaud, Topographie historique de la Syrie antique et médiévale (B…

Elusa

(68 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Rome Chief place (Amm. Marc. 15,11,14) of the Celtic Elusates (Caes. B Gall. 3,27,1; Plin. HN 4,108) in Aquitania, mod. Eauze (Dép. Gers). Roman colonia from the early 3rd cent. AD (CIL XIII 546), in the 4th cent. metropolis of the prov. Novempopulana (Notitia Galliarum 14). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Metrophanes

(208 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Μητροφάνης; Mētrophánēs). An official under Mithradates [6] VI. During the 1st Mithradatic War (89-85), he transported Pontic troops to Greece in 87 BC [2. 89, n. 318], at the same time as Neoptolemus [10] and Archelaus [4]. M. conquered Chalcis [1] in Euboea, and laid waste to the Magnesian coast as far as Demetrias [1], where the Roman proquaestor Braetius [1] inflicted some losses on his fleet (App. Mithr. 113, cf. Memnon FGrH 434 F 1,20,10; [1. 140]). M. may have been one of the envoys who in 79 negotiated an agreement with Sertoriu…

Climax

(50 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Κλῖμαξ; Klîmax). [German version] [1] Pass Wide pass provided with steps, which led out of the Inachus Valley of the Argolis near Melangea (possibly modern Pikerni) into the high plain of Mantinea (Paus. 8,6,4; cf. 2,25,3), modern Portes. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] see Pamphylia see  Pamphylia

Xoana

(44 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ξόανα; Xóana). City in the Indian subcontinent on the left of the lower reaches of the Indus [1] (Ptol. 7,1,61), to the northeast of Patala, probably at modern Hyderabad in Pakistan. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. X. (1), RE 9 A, 2138-2140.

Stoechades

(137 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Στοιχάδες νῆσοι/ Stoichádes nêsoi), 'row islands' (from στοῖχος/ stoîchos, row). Island group directly offshore, c. 70 km east of Massalia/Marseille (Str. 4,1,10; Mela 2,124), present-day Îles d'Hyères. Among them are the islands of Prote ('the first'), Mese ('the middle one'), as well as Pomponiana, Hypaea ('the one below'), Sturium, Phoenice, Phila, Lero and Lerina (Plin. HN 3,79). The assignment of the corresponding modern names to the various islands is a matter of debate (present-day Le L…

Machatas

(279 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Μαχάτας; Machátas). [German version] [1] A brother-in-law of Philip II, 4th cent. BC Member of the Macedonian [1. 200] dynasty of Elimea, brother of Derdas [3], through his sister Phila brother-in-law of Philippus II (Satyrus, FHG 3,161 fr. 5 in Ath. 557c). It is possibly this M. who is mentioned as the father of Harpalus (Arr. Anab. 3,6,4; [2. 2,75-80 no. 143]), Philip (Arr. Anab. 5,8,3; [2. 2,384f. no. 780) and Tauron (IG XII 9, 197, 4; [2. 2,371f. no. 741]). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] Envoy in Sparta and Elis, end of the 3rd cent. BC Aetolian who was active on beh…

Pisye

(145 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πισύη/ Pisýē). Carian city, capital of a local koinón (together with Pladasa, [3. 443 no. 19]; other koiná were led by Mobolla and Idyma); occupied for a short time in 201 by Philippus [7] V, then regained by Rhodes (Syll.3 586; [2. no. 151]), belonging to the region of Rhodian Peraia subjugated on the basis of the Apameia agreement in 188 BC (Antiochus [5] III.) (Steph. Byz. s.v. Π., according to him also Πιτύη/ Pitýē, ethnicon Πισυήτης/ Pisyḗtēs; Konstantinos Porphyrogennetos, De Thematibus 14,33). Archaeology: traces of the acropolis, a theatre, site…

Zarkaion oros

(41 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ζαρκαῖον ὄρος; Zarkaîon óros). Craggy mountains between Chauon (modern Ḫōy in Iran) and Ecbatana (Diod. 2,13,5), and therefore a chain in the northern Zagrus mountains in Media. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. Z.o., RE 9 A, 2328.

Corinth, Gulf of

(399 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Κορινθιακὸς κόλπος; Korinthiakòs Kólpos). According to Str. 8,2,3, the Gulf of C. (the eastern section of which is today called Gulf of C., the western section ‘Gulf of Patras’ [Πατραϊκὸς κόλπος], was held to begin at the estuary of the Achelous or the Evenus on the coast of central Greece and Araxus (today the Cape of the same name Ἄκρα Ἄραξος) on the Peloponnesian coast, at a width of 10 km and a maximum depth of 133 m. The two coastlines approach each other at Antirrhion and Rhion to within c. 2 km (ancient reckoning: 5 stadia/ 925 m, Str. loc. cit.; maximum 7 stadia/1295…

Apiolae

(64 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Town in  Latium, west of   mons Albanus ; exact location unknown (near  Bovillae?). A. was destroyed by  Tarquinius Priscus (HRR Valerius Antias F 11; Str. 5,3,4: Ἀπίολα; Apíola; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,49,2; Liv. 1,35,7); with the booty from A. he undertook the construction of the Capitoline Temple, and held magnificent games. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 2, 1902, 563.

Amasea

(266 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Byzantium | | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Limes | Patricius | Rome (Ἀμάσεια; Amáseia). City with fortress on the west bank of the  Iris (Yeşil İrmak) in  Pontus (today Amasya), residence of the Mithridatids ( Mithridates). The fortress lies where the river breaks through a part of the northern Anatolian foothills c. 250 m above the city; the city and the fortress were enclosed by a Hellenistic defensive wall (still well preserved today). Not mentioning the five monumenta…
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