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Tyraeum

(71 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τυραῖον; Tyraîon). City on the Royal Road from Sardis to Susa near Philomelium (Xen. An. 1,2,14; Artem. in  Str. 14,2,29: Τυριαῖον; Plin. HN 5,95: Tyrienses; Anna Komnene, Alexias 3,211 f.) in the area of modern Ilgın. On his march against his brother Artaxerxes [2] II in 401 BC, Cyrus [3] the Younger also passed through T. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography W. Ruge, s. v. T. (1), RE 7 A, 1800-1802  Belke/ Mersich, 409f.

Mare Nostrum

(941 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (μεγάλη θάλασσα/ megálē thálassa, Mediterranean). Because of various earth movements that are still ongoing (rising, sinking; formation of numerous islands, e.g. the archipelago between Greece and Anatolia and Cyprus, Crete, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, the Balearic Islands; still active volcanoes and earthquakes) the appearance of the Mare Nostrum (MN) changed constantly (connections to the various adjoining seas, e.g. the Atlantic, the Miocene seas in the northern foothills of the Al…

Nesactium

(94 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Settlement in Istria at modern Vizac̆e, approx. 8 km north-east of modern Pula/Croatia (Plin. HN 3,129). Suburb of the Histri on a bank with a sanctuary dated to 1,000 BC; conquered by the Romans in 177 BC (Liv. 41,11,1: oppidum Nesattium). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography K. Mihovilić, Rezultati sondanog istraivanja u sjevernoj bazilici u Nezakciju (1977 godine), in: Histria Archaeologica 15/6, 1984/5, 5-29  M. Zaninović, Apsorus, Crexa e Nesactium. Badò sulla rotta marittima adriatica, in: Quaderni dell' Antiquità di Venetia 10, 1994, 179-188  V.Ved…

Himeras

(83 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Name of two rivers in Sicily which, rising not far from one another in opposite directions on S. Salvatore (1910 m) near Polizzi (modern Imera Settentrionale, Imera Meridionale), were regarded as a single river and as the north-south central line of the island, although the eastern half of the island, thus divided, is almost twice as big as the western half. Evidence: Pol. 7,4,2; Liv. 24,6,7; Str. 6,2,1; Mela 2,119; Vitr. De arch. 8,3,7; Sil. Pun. 14,233. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Gaeson

(81 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Γαίσων; Gaísōn). Small river on the southern slopes of the Mycale mountains (Samsun Dağı), cf. Hdt. 9,97; Mela 1,87 ( Gaesus); Plin. HN 5,113 ( Gessus). Scolopoeis (Σκολοπόεις) with a temple of the Eleusinian Demeter was located at the G.; it was the location of the battle between Greeks and Persians in 479 BC (Hdt. 9,97). A lake named after the river (Γαισωνὶς λίμνη; Gaisōnìs límnē, Ath. 7,311e) is also to be located in the vicinity. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Isindus

(30 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἴσινδος; Ísindos, Ἴσινδα; Ísinda). Place name ocurring with these two name forms only in Steph. Byz. s.v. Isindos as a town in  Ionia. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Sebaste

(121 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σεβαστή/ Sebast ). City in Phrygia, founded under Augustus by means of synoikismós (involving, i.a., Διοσκωπητεῖς/ Dioskōpēteís, probably also Φλημεῖς/ Phlēmeís; [1. 85 f. no. 16]) on the eastern edge of the valley of the Sinder (Σινδρός/ Sindrós, coins HN 684; modern Banaz river) (IGR IV 635; 682 l. 18). Hellenistic wall remains at modern Selçikler, 2 km to the southwest of Sivaslı (cf. name!) suggest that a polis already existed there. A portion of the ancient road to the east of Selçikler has been discovered. Bishopric in Late Antiquity (Hierocles, Synekdemos 6…

Apuli, Apulia

(385 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Oscan tribe between the Daunii and the  Frentani (Str. 6,3,8); after the establishment of Roman rule (Liv. 8,25; 37; 9,12 ff.; 20,4 ff. for 317 BC) they gave their name to the territory from the Adriatic (with the Diomedeae insulae, today Isole Tremiti) to the  Appenninus, with the Bradanus (today Brádano) flowing into the Gulf of  Tarentum, from the  Tifernus to  Calabria. Mesozoic limestone and dolomite determine the soil on   mons Garganus (today Monte Gargano with the Montenero 1012 m), and their topsoil does on the Apulian pl…

Paryadres

(128 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Παρυάδρης/ Paryádrēs, Lat. Pariades, Parihedri montes). Part of the Alpide belt in the region of Pontus and Armenia, which may be roughly identified with the eastern part of the North Anatolian border range (Karadeniz Dağları, with the Kaçkar Dağı, 3937 m) and the Alborz (with the Damāvand, 5604 m). In the north, the P. slopes down over a narrow coastal plain to the Pontos Euxeinos (river valleys: Halys, Iris [3]); to the south, it slopes down along the earthquake-prone North Anatolia…

Meris

(141 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (ἡ μερίς; merís, ‘part, portion’, Verb μερίζειν; merízein). As a term in Greek administrative language, meris describes any type of systematic division and is used e.g. generally in Hellenistic administrative practice, especially e. g. in the Ptolemaic-Roman administration of Egypt in which the Arsinoite nomós [2] was divided into three merídes (OGIS 177,8 f., 2nd cent. BC). There is another interpretation in the territorial administrative classification in Egypt which describes it as the smallest element in the series nomós, tópos [1], kṓmē (B.), meris and henc…

Grumentum

(91 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | | Coloniae Town in Lucania ( Lucani) where the Sora (modern Sciaura) flows into the Aciris (modern Agri) (cf. Str. 6,1,3; Ptol. 3,1,70); ruins 1.5 km east of Grumento. Place of fierce battles in the 2nd Punic War (Liv. 23,37,10; 27,41,3) and in the Social War (cf. App. B Civ. 1,41). Municipium, tribus Pomptina ( regio III). Pliny speaks of the good wine from Lagarina near G. (HN 14,69). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Caeadas

(77 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Καιάδας; Kaiádas). A ravine in Taygetus into which the Spartans pushed criminals and prisoners of war condemned to death. It is presumed to be located south-east of Mistra near Parori [1] or north-west of Mistra near Tripi [2]. Documented in: Καιάδας, Thuc. 1,134,4; Κεάδας, Paus. 4,18,4; Καιέτας, Str. 8,5,7. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 E. Curtius, Peloponnesos 2, 1852, 252 2 O. Rayet, in: Annales de la Faculté des Lettres de Bordeaux 2, 1880, 353 n. 2.

Zaraspadum

(33 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] City in modern Afghanistan, according to the context in Plin. HN 6,94 in the area of the Etymander, not precisely located. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. Zaraspad(r)um, RE 9 A, 2317 f.

Halycus

(70 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἅλυκος; Halykos). River (84 km long) on the south-west coast of Sicily, empties into the sea north-west of Capo Bianco near Heraclea Minoa, modern Plátani. The H. was mentioned in the treaties between Dionysius I (376 or 374 BC: Stv 2, no. 261) and Timoleon (339 BC: Stv 2, no. 344) respectively and the Carthaginians as the demarcation line between the two spheres of control. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Triparadisus

(94 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τριπαράδεισος τῆς ἄνω Συρίας/ Triparádeisos tês ánō Syrías, literally 'in Upper Syria', Diod. Sic. 18,39,1; 19,12,2). Ancient city in northern Syria; to date there has been no success in identifying it unambiguously. It is presumed that it can be identified with Paradisus on the upper Orontes [7] (Jusiye? cf. [1. 112]). It was in T. that the Diadochi agreed on a redistribution of Alexander's empire after the death of Perdiccas [4] in 321 BC. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 R. Dussaud, Topographie historique de la Syrie antique et médiévale (B…

Elusa

(68 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Rome Chief place (Amm. Marc. 15,11,14) of the Celtic Elusates (Caes. B Gall. 3,27,1; Plin. HN 4,108) in Aquitania, mod. Eauze (Dép. Gers). Roman colonia from the early 3rd cent. AD (CIL XIII 546), in the 4th cent. metropolis of the prov. Novempopulana (Notitia Galliarum 14). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Metrophanes

(208 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Μητροφάνης; Mētrophánēs). An official under Mithradates [6] VI. During the 1st Mithradatic War (89-85), he transported Pontic troops to Greece in 87 BC [2. 89, n. 318], at the same time as Neoptolemus [10] and Archelaus [4]. M. conquered Chalcis [1] in Euboea, and laid waste to the Magnesian coast as far as Demetrias [1], where the Roman proquaestor Braetius [1] inflicted some losses on his fleet (App. Mithr. 113, cf. Memnon FGrH 434 F 1,20,10; [1. 140]). M. may have been one of the envoys who in 79 negotiated an agreement with Sertoriu…

Climax

(50 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Κλῖμαξ; Klîmax). [German version] [1] Pass Wide pass provided with steps, which led out of the Inachus Valley of the Argolis near Melangea (possibly modern Pikerni) into the high plain of Mantinea (Paus. 8,6,4; cf. 2,25,3), modern Portes. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] see Pamphylia see  Pamphylia

Xoana

(44 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ξόανα; Xóana). City in the Indian subcontinent on the left of the lower reaches of the Indus [1] (Ptol. 7,1,61), to the northeast of Patala, probably at modern Hyderabad in Pakistan. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. X. (1), RE 9 A, 2138-2140.

Stoechades

(137 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Στοιχάδες νῆσοι/ Stoichádes nêsoi), 'row islands' (from στοῖχος/ stoîchos, row). Island group directly offshore, c. 70 km east of Massalia/Marseille (Str. 4,1,10; Mela 2,124), present-day Îles d'Hyères. Among them are the islands of Prote ('the first'), Mese ('the middle one'), as well as Pomponiana, Hypaea ('the one below'), Sturium, Phoenice, Phila, Lero and Lerina (Plin. HN 3,79). The assignment of the corresponding modern names to the various islands is a matter of debate (present-day Le L…
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