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Cerasus

(154 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Xenophon | Commerce | Colonization | Limes | Patricius (Κερασοῦς; Kerasoûs). Harbour town on the river of the same name on the south coast of the Black Sea ( Pontus Euxinus), a colony of Sinope, to be located three days' march west of Trapezus (Xen. An. 5,3,2; Diod. Sic. 14,30,5) and east of Vakfıkebir; to be differentiated from the C. west of Sinope (Scylax 89: Karaköy on the Karasu?), and also from the town which under Pharnaces I (185-160/54 BC) was joined in a synoikismós with Cotyora and renamed Pharnacaea…

Denthalii

(96 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Δενθάλιοι; Denthálioi). Laconian border region near Messenia on the western slope of the northern Taygetus around the source of the Nedon, with a sanctuary of Artemis Limnatis, contested by Sparta and Messenia and finally granted to Messenia by Tiberius (Steph. Byz. s.v. D.; Tac. Ann. 4,43; Paus. 4,4,2; 31,3). Inscription: IG V 1 p. 260f. no. 1371-1378. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography L. Roß, Reisen im Peloponnes, 1841, 1ff. F. Bölte, s.v. D., RE 3A, 1312, 67ff. N. Valmin, Études topographiques sur la Messénie ancienne, 19…

Chabakta

(65 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Χάβακτα; Chábakta on coins, HN 498; Χάβακα; Chábaka Str. 12,3,16). Pontic fortress, whose name appears on pseudo-autonomous coins of  Mithridates VI; likely fortress structures identified near Kaleköy/Ünye on the coast of northern Turkey (tomb and two staircases cut into the rock). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Olshausen/Biller/Wagner, 120 W. H. Waddington, E. Babelon, Th. Reinach, Recueil général des monnaies grecques d'Asie Mineure 1,1, 21925, 104f.

Redones

(86 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Celtic tribe in modern Brittany (Not. Dign. Occ. 42,36; Notitia Galliarum 3,3; Ptol. 2,8,2: Ῥήδονες ἢ Ῥηΐδονες/ Rhḗdones ḕ Rhēḯdones; Plin. HN 4,107: Rhiedones; CIL XIII 3151). Caesar (B Gall. 2,34; 7,75,4) mentions the R. among the civitates maritimae or Aremoricae. Their capital was Condate (modern Rennes; Breton: Roazhon). In late Antiquity, they were part of the Provincia Lugdunensis III. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography G. Lerroux, A. Provost, Ille-et-Vilaine (Carte archéologique de la Gaule 35), 1990  L. Pape, La Bretagn…

Morgantina

(369 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily (Μοργαντίνα, Μοργαντίνη/ Morgantína, Morgantínē; Latin Morgentia, Murgantia). City of the Siculi in Sicily, some 15 km northeast of Piazza Armerina (Serra Orlando). Pottery finds attest to an immigration of Italic settlers in the 11th cent. BC (cf. Str. 6,1,6; 2,4). The development of the city of M. began in about 560 BC with a settlement of Greeks on the modern Cittadella (578 m). In 459 BC Ducetius conquered the city (Diod. 11,78,5) and destr…

Gela

(1,044 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Palermo, Dario (Catania)
This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages | Colonization (Γέλα; Géla) [German version] A. History City on the south-west coast of Sicily, named after the river Gelas, at the mouth of which G. lies. G. was founded as a Dorian colony with the name ‘Lindioi’ by Antiphemus of Rhodes and the Cretan Entimus forty-five years after the founding of  Syracusae (Thuc. 6,4,3), in other words in 690 BC. Herodotus also names as founder Gelon of Telos (Hdt. 7,153), an ancestor of the tyrant o…

Celossa

(49 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κηλῶσσα; Kēlôssa, Str. 6,8,24; Κηλοῦσα; Kēloûsa, Xen. Hell. 4,7,7; Κηλοῦσσα; Kēloûssa, Paus. 2,12,4), modern Megalovouni. Mountain range between Phlius and Argos (1273 m), with an Artemis sanctuary [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography 1 M. Th. Mitsos, Inscriptions of the Eastern Peloponnesus, in: Hesperia 18, 1949, 75.

Taurus

(850 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Southern Anatolian coastal mountain range Southern Anatolian coastal mountain range, today the Toros Dağları; it extends from Caria and Lycia in the west (Western T. with the Bey Dağları, 3086 m), through Cilicia (Middle T. with the Kalı Dağ, 3734 m), from where the Amanus branches off to the south-east and the Anti-T. to the north, while the main range stretches north-east to the Ararat highlands (Inner and Central Eastern T. with Ararat, 5165 m), beyond which a further Anti-T. (Ou…

Noarus

(78 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νόαρος/ Nóaros). River flowing north into the Ister [2] (Danube) in the territory of the Scordisci (and navigable there) (Str. 7,5,2). Between the N. and the Margus [1] (Str. 7,5,12) was the land of the ‘Great Scordisci’. On the discussion of the identification of the N. (Drina, Korana, Mur, Raab, lower reaches of the Sava) cf. [1; 2]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 E. Polaschek, s.v. Noaros, RE 17, 783-785 2 J. Fitz, s.v. Noaros, KlP 4, 142.

Hieron oros

(147 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ἱερὸν ὄρος; Hieròn óros). [German version] [1] Holy mountain Holy mountain, name of a mountain range on the  Propontis, modern Tegirdağ. Religious centre of the  Thraci (Str. 7, fr. 55). The fortress of the Odrysae bearing the same name (Xen. An. 7,1,14) was situated there. Cotys I entrenched himself there in 362 BC at the time of the revolt of Miltocythes (Dem. Or. 23,104). Philip II conquered H. in 346 (Dem. Or. 9,15; Aeschin. Leg. 2,82f.; 3,73f.). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography C. Danov, Altthrakien, 1976, 122f. [German version] [2] Foothills on the south …

Cithaeron

(139 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Κιθαιρών; Kithairṓn, Latin Cithaeron). A mountain range that is still forested (1407 m, Hagios Elias) to the north of the  Isthmus of Corinth and separating Boeotia on the north from the Megaris in the south-west and Attica in the south-east; the Pastra mountains (1025 m), the Skurta plateau (between 540 and 570 m) and the Parnes adjoin the C. in the east. Important connecting routes from and to Boeotia led over passes that were secured by fortifications and watch-towers (Hdt. 9,38f…

Strongyle

(98 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Στρογγύλη/ Strongýlē). Volcanic island in the north east of the Aeoliae Insulae (12,6 km2, 924 m high; Ptol. 3,4,16; Mela 2,120), present-day Stromboli. The island was named (S.: 'the round') after the form of the volcano, which has been active from Antiquity (Str. 6,2,11; cf. Thuc. 3,88,2; Diod. Sic. 5,7,1; App. B Civ. 5,105). The island has been settled from c. 3000 BC. In mythology, it was considered to be the seat of Aeolus [2] (Plin. HN 3,94) or Hephaestus (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 4,761). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e pol…

Lysimeleia

(98 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Drögemüller, Hans-Peter (Hamburg)
[German version] (Λυσιμέλεια λίμνη; Lysiméleia límē). According to Thucydides (6,101,1ff.; 7,53,2), L. refers to the southern part of the swamp area in the alluvial plain of Syracusae between the necropolis of Fusco, the Anapus and the north-western edge of the Great Harbour in the confluence region of minor watercourses (modern Canale Regina and Canale Pisimotta); cf. Theoc. 16,84, (Syracusae as ‘great city on the waters of the L.’). Identification of the L. with the swamp of Syrako is nevertheless contentious [1. 1f. and n. 10f.]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Drögemüller, Hans-P…

Narona

(519 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Limes | Moesi, Moesia Town (Mela 2,57; Plin. HN 21,40; Itin. Anton. 338,4; Tab. Peut. 6,4) on the Naro (Norino) atop a flat hill in the midst of swampy land in the lower Naro valley near modern Vid, northwest of Metković/Croatia. A prehistoric settlement is assumed; the population and place name were Illyrian. In the 5th/4th cent. BC, Greek settlers joined and founded a trading station near N. ( empórion, Scyl. 24; cf. Theopompus FGrH 115 F 129). In the 2nd/1st cent., settlers from Italy followed. Aft…

Interamnium

(24 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Road station in the Sybaris valley in Lucania (Tab. Peut. 7,1; Geogr. Rav. 4,34). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 918.

Thospitis Limne

(146 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Θωσπῖτις λίμνη/ Thōspîtis límnē). Lake in Armenia. Str. 11,14,8 regards the TL and the Arsenḗ límnē (modern Lake Erçek) to the east as a unit (cf. also Dionys. Per. 988). Separate lakes are recognized there by Ptol. 5,13,7 ( Ársissa límnē) and Plin. HN 6,128 ( lacus Thospites, lacus Aretissa); the modern Lake Van in eastern Anatolia, a basin without outflow, 1648 m above sea-level with a water surface area of approximately 3574 km2 and a maximum depth of 451 m. Ancient authors knew that the water had an extremely high soda content and only a single s…

Namnetae

(163 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] ( Namnetes, Plin. HN 4,107). A Celtic people on the right bank of the lower Liger (modern Loire), which separated them from the Pictones (Str. 4,2,1). Their territory was between the Liger, Vilaine and Semnon (Ille-et-Vilaine). Their capital was Condevincum, in whose modern name of Nantes the name of the N. survives (Ptol. 2,8,9: Κονδιούϊγκον/ Kondioúïnkon; 2,8,6 erroneously Σαμνῖται/ Samnîtai), and their chief port was Portus Nemetum (Tab. Peut 2,2; cf. CIL XIII 3105). At the time of Caesar they were allied with the Veneti (Caes. Gall. 3,9,10).…

Selenes oros

(45 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σελήνης ὄρος; Selḗnēs óros). "Mountains of the Moon, from which the lakes of the Nile receive melt water" (Ptol. 4,9,3) - according to the coordinate data in Ptol. l.c. probably modern Kilimanjaro (5895 m elevation) in northeastern Tanzania. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Prote

(191 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πρωτή/ Prōtḗ). The only island off the western coast of Messenia apart from Sphacteria (Scyl. 45; Plin. HN 4,55; Ptol. 3,16,23; Steph. Byz. s.v. Π.; ethnicon: Πρωταῖος/ Prōtaîos), today still Proti, whose small west-facing harbour on its southern side offered north-bound seafarers protection from the Etesiai (cf. Pol. 5,5,3; 6); cf. the numerous inscriptions on the craggy eastern coast of the island with petitions for a good voyage  (IG V 1, 1533-1588; SEG 11,1005-1024a; 14,337-345; from the 6th cent. BC …

Salpia

(285 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] City in Daunia (Str. 6,3,9: Σαλαπία/ Salapía; Plin. HN 3,103: Salapia; It. Ant. 314,7; Tab. Peut. 6,3; Geogr. Rav. 5,1; Guido, Geographia 22). It was established twice; the first site was where remains are to be found on the road from Zapponeta to Torre Pietra, on the Ionios Kolpos northwest of the salterns of Margherita di Savoia on the Lago di Salpi (drained in the modern period). Despite various foundation myths (founded by Trojans, Lycoph. 1129; different account in Vitr. De arch. 1,4,12, cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἐλπία; Str. 14,2,10), it was most probably a pure…
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