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(142 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] Daughter of  Aristobulus [4], a son of Herod the Great. Married in her first marriage to the latter's half-brother Herodes Philippus, H. left her husband to enter into wedlock with  Herodes Antipas…


(650 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin) | Kühne, Hartmut (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Harbour town on the north-western bank of Lake Genezareth (Greek Μαγδαλά; Magdalá < Hebrew Migdal Numayyā, ‘Tower’, Arabic al-Maǧdal). Harbour town on the north-western bank of Lake Genezareth, also known as Taricheai because of the production of saltwater fish there. Founded in the Hasmonean period ( Hasmoneans), Hellenized M. developed into one of the largest cities of Galilaea with a hippodrome and a stadium. Under emperor Nero, M. was annexed to the kingdom of Herod II Agrippa ( Iulius [II 5]). During th…

Axum, Axomis

(1,158 words)

Author(s): Mlasowsky, Alexander (Hannover) | Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Arabia (Aksum). City on the Abyssinian plateau. Founded around the time of the birth of Christ, during the 1st cent. AD the kings of A. already managed to extend their area of influence as far as Adulis by the Red Sea. A. was Christianized by Alexandria under King Ēzānā in the mid 4th cent. In the 6th cent., King Kālēb Ella Aṣbeḥā conquered the kingdom of the Jewish king of the Ḥimyars, Yūsuf Asar Yaṯar (Ḏū-Nuwās) with Byzantine support. A. c…


(332 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (Τιβηριάς/ Tibēriás, Hebrew ṭbry). City in Galilaea on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. Founded in c. AD 20 by Herod Antipas (Herodes [4]), tetrarch of Galilaea and Peraia, as a new capital replacing Sepphoris. Its naming after emperor Tiberius [II 1], its Hellenistic city constitution including a boulḗ and its incorporation of a cardo, baths and stadium are all signs of Antipas' close relations with Rome. T. was settled by coerci…


(141 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Syria | Byzantium | Xenophon | Asia Minor | Limes (Arab. Āmid, mod. Diyarbakır). Though virtually undocumented between the Hellenistic period and its fortification by Constantius II [1. 323; 2. 136 f.], A. subsequently achieved military and economic significance as a frontier town [3. 220 f., 240] and became a centre of Syrian monasticism in the 5th cent. However, after a short Sassanid occupation (503-506) it suffered from border warfare and Justinian's anti-Monophysite policies [4. 57-65]. Around 640 it was conquered by the Arabs a…


(193 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (Μάλαθα; Málatha, Jos. Ant. Iud. 18,147; Moleatha, Not. Dign. Or. 34,45), modern Arabic Tall al-Milḥ (‘salt hill) or Hebrew Tel Malḥatā; settlement situated in the centre of the Beeršeba Basin in north-eastern Negev at the confluence of two Wadis. Because of the wealth of wells in the erea, a major fortified settlement was …


(955 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin) | Dietrich, Albert (Göttingen)
[German version] Although A. owes its name to the word arab (Bedouins), the majority of its population was always sedentary. However, favourable climatic conditions for agriculture only existed in the south-western A. highland and large oases such as  Yat̄rib/Medina (Ḥiǧāz) and al-Yamāma in the East. Classical geography distinguished between A. deserta, which extended from southern Syria to the northern Ḥiǧāz, and A. felix, the southern part of the A. peninsula. The tripartite classification of Ptolemy, which added A. petraea, did not establish itself [1]. Since the earliest t…


(427 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] Most northern region of  Palaestina. Under Ptolemaic rule ( Ptolemaeus) after the death of  Alexander [4] the Great, together with all of Palestine, G. became a…


(2,079 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Νέα πόλις/ Néa pólis, Νεάπολις/ Neápolis, ‘New City’). [German version] [1] Town on the northern coast of the Aegean This item can be found on the following maps: | Macedonia, Macedones | Moesi, Moesia Town on the northern coast of the Aegean to the west of the mouth of the Nestus river, across from the island of Thasos, modern Kavalla (Str. 7a,1,36; Ps.-Scyl. 67), probably a Thasian colony but the exact period of foundation is unknown. Early in the 6th cent. BC, autonomous silver coinage modelled on that of Eretria [1] (HN 196). Ruins of the temple of Athena Parthenos are from this period. In 481 BC, Xerxes levied soldiers for his fleet in N. (Hdt. 7,123). After the battle of Plataeae in 479,…


(283 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (Hebrew šḵæm; Συχεμ, cf. Gn 12:6, Latin Sychem). City in Samaria c. 2 km to the southeast of Nāblus between the mountains of Ebal and Garizim on the hill of Tall Balāṭa and today partly covered by an Arab village…


(393 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (Σέπφωρις/ Sépphōris, cf. Jos. Ant. Iud. 14,5,9 et passim) a city in Galilaea, on the east-west link between Ptolemais [8] (Akko) and Tiberias. Settled by the Iron Age, S. was heavily fortified under Alexander [16] Iannaeus c. 100 BC. Presumably,  S. was the most important city of Galilaea even before the institution of one of the five synhedria as the government of Judaea by the Roman governor Gabinius [I 2] in 57 BC. In 37 BC it fell to Herodes [1]. After his death in 4 BC there was unrest, which was suppressed by Varus. After Galilaea had fallen, in accordance with his will, to Herodes' son, the tetrarch Herodes [4] Antipas, the latter extended the city and used it as the seat of…


(381 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin) | Brentjes, Burchard (Berlin)
[German version] Today the largest group of people speaking a Semitic language. Aribi has been the name of the inhabitants of the Arabic steppe and Mat Arabi of the ‘steppe region’ since the Assyrian period (9th cent. BC). The A. were first mentioned as camel riders on the monolith of Shalmanasar II (859-825 BC). The Aribi were subject to kings and also ruling qu…


(142 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (Ναζαρέθ; Nazaréth). Town in southern Galilaea. Settled from the late 3rd millennium BC, the village of N. is first mentioned in the NT as the place of Jesus' youth before he emerged into public life (e.g. Mt 2,23; Mk 1,9; Lk 2,4 el passim). The town, Jewish into the 4th/5th cents., became a destination of Christian pilgrimage from the end of the 4th cent. In the 5th cent., a church was built on the site of the Annunciation to Mary Ma…


(1,739 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νικόπολις; Nikópolis). [German version] [1] Town on the upper Nestus river This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia Town on the upper Nestus river on the road from Philippopolis to the Aegean coast (Ptol. 3,11,13: Ν. ἡ περὶ Νέσσον; 8,11,7; Hierocles, Synekdemos 636,5), near modern Goce Delčev (Bulgaria), founded in AD 106 by Traianus. From the 2nd to 4th cents. AD, N. reached a high economic and cultural level (minting from Commodus to Caracalla: HN 287; thermal baths, peristyle buildings, sculpt…

Beth Shearim

(159 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] Place in Lower Galilee. With the relocation of the patriarch Jehuda ha-Nasi (from c. AD 175-217) B., as seat of the Sanhedrin and the rabbinic school, became for a short while the centre of Palestinian Judaism but gradually declined in importance after the transfer to Tiberias of the patriarchate and its institutions around the middle of the 3rd cent. In the suc…


(216 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] [1] City situated at c. 30 km distance to Jerusalem (Ἐμμαοῦς; Emmaoûs, Arabic Amwās). City situated c. 30 km north-west of Jerusalem. In 166/5 BC  Judas Maccabeus defeated the  Seleucids at E.. In the Jewish War  Vespasian stationed the 5th Legion there. Re-founded at the start of the 3rd cent. AD at the time of Iulius Africanus, E. was given the name Nicopolis. From the 4th cent. to the period of the Crusades E. was considered to be the place where the resurrected Jesus appeared to two disciples (Lk 24, 13). Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin) [German version] [2] Settlement sit…


(1,106 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] I. Name, geography, early history The Latin name P. originated from Greek Παλαιστίνη ( Palaistínē); the latter originated from Aramaic pelištaīn and Hebrew pelištīm, which was originally used to describe the settlement area of the Philistines in the south of the Near Eastern Mediterranean coast between Gaza and Carmel (likewise Egyptian prst/ pw-r-s-ṯ, 'foreign land of Philistaea', and Palaistínē in Hdt. 1,105; 3,5; 91; 7,89). P. was also mentioned as …


(92 words)


(429 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias (Berlin) | Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
This item can be found on the following maps: Pilgrimage [German version] A. Early history (Arab bait-laḥm; Βητλέεμ ( Bētléem; NT); Βαιτλεεμ ( Baitleem; LXX); Βητλέμα, Βηθλεέμη (Bētléma, Bēthleémē; Ios.); Hebrew bēt-leẹm ‘House of Bread’); located about 8 km south of Jerusalem on the important communication route between Jerusalem and Hebron on fertile land at the edge of the desert. The interpretation of the place name as a derivation from a goddess named Lachama is improbable [1]. Archaeologically attested from the Iron Ag…


(1,483 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Βερενίκη; Bereníkē). [German version] [1] B. Maternal great niece of Antipater Born c. 340 BC as the daughter of Magas and Antigone, maternal great niece of Antipater [1]. Around 325, she married a certain Philippus, with whom she had two children: Antigone, later the wife of Pyrrhus, and Magas. Around 322, Antipater sent her (as a widow?) and his daughter Eurydice to Ptolemy I, who married Eurydice. B. quickly gained Ptolemy's respect, and bore him Arsinoe in 316, Ptolemy II in 308; other children of the …
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