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Augustine

(4,295 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
( Aurelius Augustinus) A. Historical dimension A. (AD 354–430), Augustine, was Bishop of Hippo from AD 395/96 to 430 (Annaba in present-day Algeria), and is regarded as the most influential early Christian thinker of the Latin West. Born at Thagaste (North Africa, then a Roman province), son of a Christian mother, Mon(n)ica, and a pagan father Patricius, he embodied the transitional phase of Late Antiquity, in which Christianity was becoming increasingly established as the Roman Empire underwent a slow political disintegration. In his spiritual autobiography, the  Confessiones ( c…
Date: 2016-02-22

Tyconius

(239 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[English version] Lebte etwa 330-390 n. Chr. in Afrika (Gennadius vir. ill. 18). Sein um 383 entstandener, fast vollständig erh. lat. Liber Regularum (‘Regelbuch) stellt die erste erh. christl. Hermeneutik dar. Nach T. müssen bei der Bibelauslegung sieben Kernsachverhalte beachtet werden: 1) der Herr und sein Leib, d. h. die Kirche; 2) der in Gut und Böse zweigeteilte Leib des Herrn; 3) die Verheißungen und das Gesetz; 4) der spezielle Unterpunkt und allg. die Textgattung; 5) symbolische Zeitangaben; 6) Wiederholung…

Typologie

(354 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[English version] Erst im 18. Jh. geprägter t.t., der die vornehmlich jüd.-christl. Interpretationsmethode einer als kohärent und zielgerichtet verstandenen Heils-Gesch. bezeichnet (davon zu trennen ist T. im Sinne von Einteilung von Individuen in Typen bzw. T. als Methode der relativen Altersbestimmung in der Urgesch.-Forsch.). T. ist zurückführbar auf die Begriffe τύπος/ týpos (“Bild”) bzw. τυπικός/ typikós (Röm 5,14; 1 Kor 10,6; 11) und ἀντίτυπον/ antítypon (Ebenbild; 1 Petr 3,21). In der T. werden Ereignisse, Einrichtungen oder Personen der Vergangenhei…

Prudentius

(176 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[German Version] (Aurelius P. Clemens; 348/349 Spain – after 405), often called the Christian Virgil or Horace, since he was among the first to use classical meter to articulate Christian theological doctrines, often very complex, making him probably the greatest and most innovative Christian poets of Late Antiquity. His works include the lyric cycles Cathemerinon liber [Book of hours] and Peristephanon liber [Book of the martyrs’ crowns], the two didactic poems in hexameters “Apotheosis” [Deification] and “Hamartigenia” [The Origin of sin], and the Psychomachia [The Struggle …

Lactantius, Lucius Caecilius Firmianus

(447 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[German Version] (c. 250–325), Christian Latin writer. Lactantius pursued extensive literary and philosophical studies; one of his teachers was Arnobius the Elder. At some time prior to 300, he was summoned to Nicomedia by Diocletian to teach rhetoric. At the outset of persecutions of Christians under Diocletian (303), he resigned from his teaching position and began to write as an apologist for the Christian religion. Because of his polished Latin, he has been called a “Christian Cicero.” Circa 314/315, Constantine brought him to Trier to tutor Crispus. In the treatise De opificio D…

Fortunatus, Venantius (Saint)

(194 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[German Version] (c. 530, Treviso, northern Italy – before 610, Poitiers), Christian Latin poet who studied in Ravenna and in 565, in gratitude for liberation from an eye ailment, undertook a pilgrimage to the grave of St. Martin of Tours. In 567 he went to Poitiers, where he became bishop c. 600. Fortunatus wrote occasional poems in the classical style for rich and well-placed patrons, e.g. the Thuringian princess Radegunde. In addition he wrote the epic poem “Vita Martini,” lives of saints in pr…

Sedulius

(81 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[English Version] (5.Jh.), weltl. gebildeter Christ, dessen »Paschale carmen« (Ostergedicht) zum rechten Glauben führen will. Es wurde, zus. mit zwei Hymnen des S., von Remigius von Auxerre kommentiert. Später vf. S. auch eine verbessernde Prosaversion, ebenfalls in fünf Büchern, das »Paschale opus« (Osterwerk). Die beiden Fassungen wurden Vorbild für das ma. »opus geminatum«. Karla Pollmann Bibliography CPL 1447–1449 Ausg.: J. Huemer (CSEL 10, 1885) Über S.: M. Mazzega, Carmen paschale, Buch III, 1996 (Text, Komm.).

Prudentius Clemens

(159 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[English Version] Prudentius Clemens, Aurelius (348/349 Spanien – nach 405), wird gerne als christl. Vergil und Horaz bez., da er als einer der ersten klassische Versmaße zur Artikulation z.T. sehr komplexer christl. Theol. benutzte, was ihn zum wohl größten und innovativsten spätantiken christl. Dichter macht. Sein Werk umfaßt die lyrischen Zyklen »Cathemerinon Liber« (»Buch der Tagelieder«) und »Peristephanon Liber« (»Buch über die Märtyrerkronen«), die beiden hexametrischen Lehrdichtungen »Apothe…

Venantius Fortunatus

(182 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[English Version] (um 530 Treviso, Oberitalien – vor 610 Poitiers), christl.-lat. Dichter. V. studierte in Ravenna und unternahm 565 zum Dank für die Befreiung von einem Augenleiden eine Wallfahrt zum Grab des hl. Martin von Tours; 567 kam er nach Poitiers, wo er um 600 Bischof wurde. V. vf. Gelegenheitsgedichte in klassischem Stil für reiche und hochgestellte Gönner, z.B. für die thüringische Prinzessin Radegunde. Ferner schrieb er u.a. die epische Dichtung »Vita Martini«, Heiligenleben in Prosa …

Sidonius Apollinaris

(140 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[English Version] Sidonius Apollinaris, Gaius Sollius Modestus (430/31 Lyon – 480/490 Clermont-Ferrand), Bf. in Clermont-Ferrand. Der Schwiegersohn des Kaisers Avitus gilt als der bedeutendste lat. Dichter und Prosaschriftsteller seiner Zeit in Gallien. Entgegen der zunehmenden Germanisierung seiner Umwelt gestaltete er seine Werke, die im MA sehr beliebt waren, nach klassisch-lat., auch paganen, Vorbildern. Seine drei Verspanegyriken (carmina 1–8) auf die Kaiser Avitus, Majorian und Anthemius folgen …

Arnobius the Elder

(269 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[German Version] (of Sicca, Numidia Proconsularis), a teacher of rhetoric (one of whose students was Lactantius), converted to Christianity late in life. Between c. 303 and 310, in defense of Christianity he wrote the apology Adversus nationes in seven books, the last left incomplete. In it he attacks a variety of opponents of the Christians, especially the adherents of pagan religion; the work is dominated by elaborate rhetorical polemic designed to “fling back” ( retorsio) the charge of impiety leveled by the enemies of Christianity, but …

Isidore of Pelusium (Saint)

(171 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[German Version] (c. 360 – after 433), a classically educated teacher of rhetoric (?) and later priest in Pelusium (eastern Nile Delta), withdrew to the nearby wilderness as an ascetic monk, nonetheless remaining active in church politics. Approximately 2,000 of his letters as well as apophthegmata have been preserved. The deacon Rusticus (6th cent.) translated 49 letters into Latin. The letters are addressed, in some cases, to high-ranking personalities (e.g. Emperor Theodosius II; Cyril of Alexa…

Gennadius of Marseille

(201 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[German Version] was presbyter in Marseille (492–496). His most important preserved work, De viris illustribus (c. 475), a Christian history of literature (continued by Isidore of Seville and Ildefons of Toledo), includes 103 Greek and Roman authors and continues the catalogue of authors of the same name by Jerome. Also often attributed to Gennadius are: (1) Liber (or: Definitio) ecclesiasticorum dogmatum, a compilation of orthodox and heretical doctrinal statements (abridgment c. 470), (2) Statuta ecclesiae antiqua, a collection of canons with significance for liturgy…

Arnobius the Younger

(178 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[German Version] (died after 455), a monk who probably fled from the Vandals invading Africa, lived in Rome after c. 432; he was an opponent of Augustine's doctrine of grace (Augustine). He has been little studied. Two manuscripts are attributed to him: Commentarii in Psalmos (possibly written in Africa before 428), which uses typological interpretation to relate the text, especially messianic prophecies, to NT events, and Conflictus Arnobii et Serapionis, an anti-Monophysite disputation written between 449 and 451 (Monophysites). Other works attributed to Arnobius include Liber…

Sedulius

(85 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[German Version] (5th cent.), secularly educated Christian, whose Paschale carmen (“Easter Song”) was written to edify educated Christians. It and two other hymns by him were commented on by Remigius of Auxerre. Later Sedulius wrote a prose paraphrase of the Paschale Carmen, the Paschale opus (“Easter Work”), likewise in five books. The two versions became a model for the medieval opus geminatum. Karla Pollmann Bibliography CPL 1447–1449 Ed.: J. Huemer, CSEL 10, 1885 On Sedulius: M. Mazzega, Carmen paschale. Buch III, 1996 (text; comm.).

Marius Claudius Victor

(182 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[German Version] (better: Victorius; died between 425 and 450 ce), rhetor in Marseille; not to be confused with the philosopher and theologian Marius Victorinus. He composed a hexametric biblical epic Alethia [Truth] in three books, freely paraphrasing Genesis from creation to Sodom and Gomorrah. Since Gennadius of Marseille ( Vir. ill. 61, Richardson) speaks of four books, a fourth book may have been lost. Besides didactic elements intended for the instruction of youth (see the introductory prayer), Platonic influence is noticeable. The paraph…

Sidonius Apollinaris

(174 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[German Version] Sidonius Apollinaris, Gaius Sollius (429/431, Lyon – 486(?), Clermont-Ferrand), bishop in Clermont-Ferrand. The son-in-law of the emperor Avitus, he is considered the most important Latin writer of both poetry and prose in 5th-century Gaul. Contrary to the increasing Germanic influence in Gaul, he modeled his works – very popular in the Middle Ages – on classical Latin authors, including pagans. His three verse-panegyrics ( Carmina 1–8) on the emperors Avitus, Majorian, and Anthemius are based on Claudius Claudianus, his occasional poems ( Carmina 9–24) on the Silv…

Commodianus

(91 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla
[German Version] (3rd [probably not 5th] cent. North Africa?) was the earliest Christian Latin poet. Works: 1. Instructiones: conversion of Jews and pagans, instructions for the Christian way of life; 2. Carmen apologeticum: a portrayal of Christianity as the true faith in 1060 hexameters containing chiliastic-eschatological motifs. The works are characterized by the programmatic rejection of classical (because untrue) diction and meter. Karla Pollmann Bibliography CPL, 1470f. CChr.SL 128, 1960 A. Salvatore, ed., Instructiones, 1965–1968 idem, Carme apologetico, 1977 E. He…

Carmen adversus Marcionitas

(124 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[German version] (previously: Marcionem). Hexametrical Christian didactic poem ( didactic poetry) in 5 bks. (summary 5,1-18), which is aimed at the heretical positions of the Marcionites ( Marcion) (1,141-144). It is not written by   Tertullian, but rather by an anonymous author, whose origins are difficult to ascertain [2. 15-22, 29f.]. The poem was written sometime between AD 420-450 [2. 28-33]. Bk. 3 takes up the concept of the ecclesia ab Abel from Aug. Civ. 15. In order to prove the unity of OT and NT, the author employs numerous, and at times complex,  ty…

Aponius

(133 words)

Author(s): Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews)
[German version] After the Council of Chalcedon (AD 451) [3.72-75], he wrote an extensive commentary on the Song of Solomon in 12 bks. Inspired by  Origenes [2], in a triple  allegoresis A. interprets the Song of Solomon as a dialogue between Christ and the church, or between the Word of God and the soul of man, or -- and this was his own accomplishment [3. 58, 174] -- as the love of the soul of Christ for the Logos. In the Middle Ages, the commentary was greatly used, first by Beda [2]. Pollmann, Karla (St. Andrews) Bibliography Editions: 1 B. de Vrégille/L. Neyrand, CCL 19, 1986. Literature: 2 …
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