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Laran

(97 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan god of war, most often depicted as a youth and identified by name. From the 5th cent. BC represented on Etruscan mirrors, frequently in the context with other deities, especially with Turan/Aphrodite; to a large extent equivalent to Greek Ares and Roman Mars, not identical with Etruscan Maris. L. also occurs on vessels and as free-standing sculpture (monumental: ‘Mars of Todi’), but not on the bronze liver of Piacenza ( Divination VII). Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography I. Krauskopf, s.v. L., Dizionario della civiltà etrusca, 1985, 147f. E. Simon, s.…

Akalan

(127 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Urarṭu Archaic settlement of dwellings 18 km south-west of Samsun near the Pontic coast in north Anatolia. Excavations by Th. Macridy [3] in 1906 yielded the remains of a citadel and, most of all, high quality terracotta roof ornaments in the Greek-Ionian style [1]. The ceramics, too, point to close contacts with Ionia or the Ionian colonies of the Pontic coast [2]. The ancient name of the settlement, which only flourished in the 6th cent. BC, i…

Pulena

(111 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan nomen gentile, recorded in inscriptions on sarkophagoi belonging to the Hellenistic tomb of the P. family in Tarquinia, including a lid figure of one Laris P. with an inscribed scroll (Book B.). It contains the curriculum vitae of the dead person, named Laris Pule Creice ('the Greek'),. and names four generations of ancestors. Based on the formula ancn zich nethsrac Laris P. is mostly regarded as the author of a book on Etruscan haruspicy (Haruspices II. C.). Divination Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography R. Herbig, Die jüngeretruskischen Steinsark…

Hescanas

(27 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan gentilicium of aristocratic families, especially in  Volsinii, known through the figured painted tomb of H. found there.  Etrusci, Etruria Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)

Altar

(1,994 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Definition and function The Graeco-Roman altar (ἐσχάρα, βωμός; eschára, bōmós; Lat. ara, ‘fireplace’) is defined by its function and not as an object of a certain type. An altar can be an ephemeral natural or artificial elevation, hearth or building for sacrifices involving fire, drink or other elements (in contrast to the sacrificial pit dug into the ground, the βόθρος [ bóthros], Hom. Od. 10, 517; Lucian Char. 22) and marks the centre of a sacrificial act. There are sanctuaries without a  temple, but never without an altar ([23. 150]; a…

Matunas

(123 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan family name of an important gens from Caere (today Cerveteri; 4th/3rd century BC), known from the inscriptions of two chamber tombs in that place, the Tomba dei Tarquini and the Tomba dei Rilievi. The latter is the most elaborately furnished Etruscan chamber grave in the form of an Atrium with thirteen niches which represent cubicula. The names ascribed to the dead compose a genealogy of four generations, the name of the grave's donor Vel Matunas, son of Lars, being inscribed on a Cippus at the entrance to the grave. Funerary architecture (III. C. 1.) Prayon, Fried…

Alişar

(86 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Hill covered with settlements, located in northern Cappadocia to the south-east of  Boghazki. Excavations in 1930-32 under H. H. von der Osten. These revealed, for the first time in Chalcolithic central Anatolia, continuous settlement histories from into Byzantine times [2]. Chronologically of importance is the post-Hittite-‘Phrygian’ layer of Alişar IV with ceramics in the style of silhouette-like animals [1. 1-10; 3]. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography 1 E. Akurgal, Phryg. Kunst, 1955 2 H. H. v. d. Osten, The Alishar Hüyük, OIP 29-30, 1937 3 G. …

Partunu

(67 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan name of a gens (small clan with a shared ancestor) from Tarquinia. It is found on an elaborately furnished family grave of the 4th/3rd cents. BC; the sarcophagi of the individual family members are identified by their names and offices. Tarquinii Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography H. Rix (Ed.), Etr. Texte, 1991, Ta 1.9, 1.13, 1.15  S. Steingräber, Etrurien. Städte, Heiligtümer, Nekropolen, 1981, 398.

Fibula

(55 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] (Lat. fibula, from figibula; figere, ‘tack’, ‘pin’), a multi-part clasp used in clothing. Because of the wide range of types and decor, fibulae provide one of the most important guides for the differentiation and chronology of prehistoric and primitive cultures. For the various types and cultures, see  Needle. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)

Etruscans: later reception

(1,351 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) In contrast to the reception of Greek and Roman cultures, the reception of Etruscan culture can be considered peripheral and largely indirect. However, during the Renaissance and in the 18th cent. (as a result of a 'misinterpretation', particularly in the field of architecture) it was of some importance, as well as in the modern era.  Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) [German version] B. From the Renaissance to the 17th Century (CT) Even though individual monuments and literary reports of the Etruscans were k…

Tarchna

(80 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Etruscan name for the city of Tarquinia Etruscan name for the city of Tarquinia (Tarquinii) from the 5th cent. BC (Early Etruscan: * tarchuna). Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Etruscan nomen gentile Etruscan nomen gentile, especially in the 'Tomb of Inscriptions' in Caere/Cerveteri. The names of more than seven generations are inscribed there, of which the two last are in the Latinized form Tarquitius. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography M. Cristofani, La Tomba delle Iscrizioni a Cerveteri, 1965.

Liber linteus

(91 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan book type in the form of a written linen cloth folded according to a fixed pattern. The so-called ‘Mummy-wrapping of Agram’ ( liber linteus Zagrabiensis) is preserved in the original with c. 40 cm height and 340 cm preserved length containing a ritual text in calendric form ( Calendar; no earlier than the 3rd cent. BC). There are also pictorial and sculpted copies of libri lintei in Etruscan graves, on sarcophagi and urns. Divination Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography F. Roncalli (ed.), Scrivere etrusco. Exhibition catalogue Perugia, 1985.

Lasa

(73 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Young Etruscan goddess or demon mostly represented as winged; on Hellenistic mirrors she appears together with goddesses, heroes or nymphs. Her name appears frequently with epithets that indicate different functions that are still not clarified in detail. It is also not clear how she is distinguished from Etruscan Vanth. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography I. Krauskopf, s.v. L., Dizionario della civiltà etrusca, 1985, 148 R. Lambrechts, s.v. L., LIMC 6, 217-225.

Arimnestus

(60 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan king who, according to  Pausanias (5,12,5), made a votive offering at Olympia as the first foreigner: a throne that was placed in the temple of Zeus. Cf. the throne of the Phrygian king Midas as the oldest votive offering in Delphi made by an outsider. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography M. Cristofani (ed.), Dizionario della civiltà etrusca, 1985.

Town, city

(4,219 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Kolb, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Definition 'Town' and 'city' in modern parlance have become general terms to describe settlements of a particular size, with a particular complement of buildings and administrative and legal structure. Owing, however, to the manifold forms assumed by towns and cities, we lack a specific, all-embracing definition: criteria such as a closed built environment, a highly evolved division of labour, and central administrative and economic functions for the surrounding territory, have p…

Templum

(270 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Term in Roman augural theory for an augural temple (Fest. 157) and for the field of observation marked out by the  augur for collecting auspices (cf. Varro Ling. 7,6-10; Liv. 1,18,6-8); everything outside it is described as tescum. In general the term templum referred primarily to sacred buildings (Temple), but also to other locations “in quibus auspicato et publice res administrarentur et senatus haberi posset” (' in which public affairs were regulated by auspices and a meeting of the Senate could be held', Serv. Aen. 1,466) [1]. Because of the spatial divisio…

Funerary architecture

(5,482 words)

Author(s): Kammerer-Grothaus, Helke (Bremen) | Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) | Hauser, Stefan R. (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Et al.
[German version] I. Definition Funerary architecture (FA) refers to architectonically designed structures built above the contemporary ground level for the purpose of  burial, as opposed to underground hypogea, which have rooms for the cult of the dead and hero cult. Columbaria can combine both types. Hypogea with a ground level cult room influenced the early Christian martyria above the graves. Regarding further aspects of FA, cf.  Hypogaeum;  Maussolleum;  Necropoleis. Kammerer-Grothaus, Helke (Bremen) II. Egypt and the Near East [German version] A. Egypt The Egyptian buria…

Wall paintings

(3,970 words)

Author(s): A.NU. | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Numerous Ancient Oriental temples, palaces and private residences were painted inside, but due to the a secco-technique, only traces of the paintings still remain. Each colour has its own symbolism. Red, the colour of life and strength, was used as early as the 10th millennium BC for painting the walls and floors of houses (e.g. Ain Mallaha, Israel). Clay or lime plaster served as the base [1; 2]. The oldest and best-preserved figural wall paintings (WP) are found in the houses of…

Uni

(147 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Supreme Etruscan female deity, etymologically linked with Latin Iuno and perhaps originating in Latium. She was assimilated to Greek Hera at an early stage, e.g. she is the wife of Tinia/Zeus. But U. also had Italic elements (Iono Sospita) with special relationships to Hercle/Heracles [1] and Turan [1]/Aphrodite. U. was a patron goddess of some cities, e.g. Veii, from where the cult and statue were removed to Rome in 396 BC by evocatio (Iuno Regina), and of some sanctuaries (Pyrgi [1], Graviscae, Caere), often in cultic association with other deities,…

Atrium

(292 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] 1. Central room in the ancient Italian and Roman house with lateral cubicula (sleeping chambers) and rear tablinum (room serving as passage between the atrium and the peristylion) flanked by the   alae which had no door. Early forms of the atrium are reproduced in Etruscan chamber tombs (Cerveteri), the oldest evidence is represented by Etruscan domestic architecture at the end of the 6th cent. BC in Rome (the Palatine) and in the Etruscan Marzabotto. The early Roman atrium served as a reception room for the clientes whom the patron received while sitting on the solium. In …
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