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Temple

(5,554 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) | Hollender, Elisabeth (Cologne) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Et al.
[German version] I. Mesopotamia The Sumerian term é and the Akkadian term bītu, meaning 'temple' or 'house (of the deity)', were not restricted to 'dwellings' of deities of a particular size or importance. They applied to sanctuaries from small neighbourhood shrines in residential areas to large, freestanding, tall buildings, from one-room cult sites to temple complexes with extensive auxiliary buildings, and they could be used for temples where one or many deities were worshipped. Prehistoric structures are often classified as temples only because apparently they nei…

Nortia

(156 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan and Roman goddess. According to Liv. 7,3,7, year nails were driven in her temple in Volsinii, in analogy to the custom at the temple of Jupiter on the Capitoline in Rome. The sanctuary has not been localised with certainty. Inscriptions in Bolsena attested to the continuation of the cult until the 3rd cent. AD (CIL VI 537,4: Nortia, te veneror, Lari cretus Vulsiniensi), and there is also an honorary inscription dedicated to a c[ uratori t] empli deae N[ ort] ia[ e] [1]. The Etruscan name of the goddess may have been * Nurti, from which gens names such as Nurtine are der…

Pins

(3,978 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Giesen, Katharina (Tübingen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Steimle, Christopher (Erfurt) | Et al.
[German version] I. General Pins and needles (βελόνη/ belónē, περόνη/ perónē, ῥαφίς/ rhaphís, Latin acus) were put to a variety of uses in the ancient household: they were used for hair, garments and sewing. They were also a utensil, for example, in the work of doctors (Surgical instruments), sailmakers etc. Tattoos were also done using special needles. The shape of the pin, long and thin with one sharp end, has not changed since prehistoric times. In sewing needles, the head is generally unadorned and flat; …

Etrusci, Etruria

(9,491 words)

Author(s): Camporeale, Giovannangelo (Florence) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Naso, Alessandro (Udine) | Aigner-Foresti, Luciana (Vienna)
(Tusci), the Etruscans. I. History [German version] A. Name A people in Italy who, between the 9th and 1st cents. BC, created the highest form of civilization in the Western Mediterranean before Roman civilization prevailed over the same territory. Various popular names were applied to the E.: Rasna (or Graecized Rasenna) in Etruscan sources, Tyrrhenoi or Tyrsenoi in Greek sources, Turskus in Umbrian sources and Etrusci, Tusci or Lydii (according to Hdt. 1,94 because of their possible origin in Lydia) in Lat. sources. Camporeale, Giovannangelo (Florence) [German version] B. History…

Hulchnie

(26 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan gentilicium of aristocratic families, especially in  Volsinii and  Tarquinii (Tomba dell' Orco), possibly synonymous with the Latin Fulginii. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)

Laran

(97 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan god of war, most often depicted as a youth and identified by name. From the 5th cent. BC represented on Etruscan mirrors, frequently in the context with other deities, especially with Turan/Aphrodite; to a large extent equivalent to Greek Ares and Roman Mars, not identical with Etruscan Maris. L. also occurs on vessels and as free-standing sculpture (monumental: ‘Mars of Todi’), but not on the bronze liver of Piacenza ( Divination VII). Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography I. Krauskopf, s.v. L., Dizionario della civiltà etrusca, 1985, 147f. E. Simon, s.…

Akalan

(127 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Urarṭu Archaic settlement of dwellings 18 km south-west of Samsun near the Pontic coast in north Anatolia. Excavations by Th. Macridy [3] in 1906 yielded the remains of a citadel and, most of all, high quality terracotta roof ornaments in the Greek-Ionian style [1]. The ceramics, too, point to close contacts with Ionia or the Ionian colonies of the Pontic coast [2]. The ancient name of the settlement, which only flourished in the 6th cent. BC, i…

Pulena

(111 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan nomen gentile, recorded in inscriptions on sarkophagoi belonging to the Hellenistic tomb of the P. family in Tarquinia, including a lid figure of one Laris P. with an inscribed scroll (Book B.). It contains the curriculum vitae of the dead person, named Laris Pule Creice ('the Greek'),. and names four generations of ancestors. Based on the formula ancn zich nethsrac Laris P. is mostly regarded as the author of a book on Etruscan haruspicy (Haruspices II. C.). Divination Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography R. Herbig, Die jüngeretruskischen Steinsark…

Hescanas

(27 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan gentilicium of aristocratic families, especially in  Volsinii, known through the figured painted tomb of H. found there.  Etrusci, Etruria Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)

Altar

(1,994 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Definition and function The Graeco-Roman altar (ἐσχάρα, βωμός; eschára, bōmós; Lat. ara, ‘fireplace’) is defined by its function and not as an object of a certain type. An altar can be an ephemeral natural or artificial elevation, hearth or building for sacrifices involving fire, drink or other elements (in contrast to the sacrificial pit dug into the ground, the βόθρος [ bóthros], Hom. Od. 10, 517; Lucian Char. 22) and marks the centre of a sacrificial act. There are sanctuaries without a  temple, but never without an altar ([23. 150]; a…

Matunas

(123 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan family name of an important gens from Caere (today Cerveteri; 4th/3rd century BC), known from the inscriptions of two chamber tombs in that place, the Tomba dei Tarquini and the Tomba dei Rilievi. The latter is the most elaborately furnished Etruscan chamber grave in the form of an Atrium with thirteen niches which represent cubicula. The names ascribed to the dead compose a genealogy of four generations, the name of the grave's donor Vel Matunas, son of Lars, being inscribed on a Cippus at the entrance to the grave. Funerary architecture (III. C. 1.) Prayon, Fried…

Alişar

(86 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Hill covered with settlements, located in northern Cappadocia to the south-east of  Boghazki. Excavations in 1930-32 under H. H. von der Osten. These revealed, for the first time in Chalcolithic central Anatolia, continuous settlement histories from into Byzantine times [2]. Chronologically of importance is the post-Hittite-‘Phrygian’ layer of Alişar IV with ceramics in the style of silhouette-like animals [1. 1-10; 3]. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography 1 E. Akurgal, Phryg. Kunst, 1955 2 H. H. v. d. Osten, The Alishar Hüyük, OIP 29-30, 1937 3 G. …

Partunu

(67 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan name of a gens (small clan with a shared ancestor) from Tarquinia. It is found on an elaborately furnished family grave of the 4th/3rd cents. BC; the sarcophagi of the individual family members are identified by their names and offices. Tarquinii Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography H. Rix (Ed.), Etr. Texte, 1991, Ta 1.9, 1.13, 1.15  S. Steingräber, Etrurien. Städte, Heiligtümer, Nekropolen, 1981, 398.

Lasa

(73 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Young Etruscan goddess or demon mostly represented as winged; on Hellenistic mirrors she appears together with goddesses, heroes or nymphs. Her name appears frequently with epithets that indicate different functions that are still not clarified in detail. It is also not clear how she is distinguished from Etruscan Vanth. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography I. Krauskopf, s.v. L., Dizionario della civiltà etrusca, 1985, 148 R. Lambrechts, s.v. L., LIMC 6, 217-225.

Arimnestus

(60 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Etruscan king who, according to  Pausanias (5,12,5), made a votive offering at Olympia as the first foreigner: a throne that was placed in the temple of Zeus. Cf. the throne of the Phrygian king Midas as the oldest votive offering in Delphi made by an outsider. Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) Bibliography M. Cristofani (ed.), Dizionario della civiltà etrusca, 1985.

Town, city

(4,219 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Kolb, Frank (Tübingen)
[German version] I. Definition 'Town' and 'city' in modern parlance have become general terms to describe settlements of a particular size, with a particular complement of buildings and administrative and legal structure. Owing, however, to the manifold forms assumed by towns and cities, we lack a specific, all-embracing definition: criteria such as a closed built environment, a highly evolved division of labour, and central administrative and economic functions for the surrounding territory, have p…

Templum

(270 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Term in Roman augural theory for an augural temple (Fest. 157) and for the field of observation marked out by the  augur for collecting auspices (cf. Varro Ling. 7,6-10; Liv. 1,18,6-8); everything outside it is described as tescum. In general the term templum referred primarily to sacred buildings (Temple), but also to other locations “in quibus auspicato et publice res administrarentur et senatus haberi posset” (' in which public affairs were regulated by auspices and a meeting of the Senate could be held', Serv. Aen. 1,466) [1]. Because of the spatial divisio…

Funerary architecture

(5,482 words)

Author(s): Kammerer-Grothaus, Helke (Bremen) | Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) | Hauser, Stefan R. (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Et al.
[German version] I. Definition Funerary architecture (FA) refers to architectonically designed structures built above the contemporary ground level for the purpose of  burial, as opposed to underground hypogea, which have rooms for the cult of the dead and hero cult. Columbaria can combine both types. Hypogea with a ground level cult room influenced the early Christian martyria above the graves. Regarding further aspects of FA, cf.  Hypogaeum;  Maussolleum;  Necropoleis. Kammerer-Grothaus, Helke (Bremen) II. Egypt and the Near East [German version] A. Egypt The Egyptian buria…

Wall paintings

(3,970 words)

Author(s): A.NU. | Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Numerous Ancient Oriental temples, palaces and private residences were painted inside, but due to the a secco-technique, only traces of the paintings still remain. Each colour has its own symbolism. Red, the colour of life and strength, was used as early as the 10th millennium BC for painting the walls and floors of houses (e.g. Ain Mallaha, Israel). Clay or lime plaster served as the base [1; 2]. The oldest and best-preserved figural wall paintings (WP) are found in the houses of…

Uni

(147 words)

Author(s): Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] Supreme Etruscan female deity, etymologically linked with Latin Iuno and perhaps originating in Latium. She was assimilated to Greek Hera at an early stage, e.g. she is the wife of Tinia/Zeus. But U. also had Italic elements (Iono Sospita) with special relationships to Hercle/Heracles [1] and Turan [1]/Aphrodite. U. was a patron goddess of some cities, e.g. Veii, from where the cult and statue were removed to Rome in 396 BC by evocatio (Iuno Regina), and of some sanctuaries (Pyrgi [1], Graviscae, Caere), often in cultic association with other deities,…
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