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Hemerologion

(288 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] (ἡμερολόγιον; hēmerológion) is a text arranged according to the days of the year. The ancient spectrum of meaning ranges from  calendar (Plut. Caesar 59) to diary (Cosmas Indicopleustes, Topographia christiana PG 88,276A, 6th cent. AD) and is still used in the specialized Latin of the 19th cent. in this way. In modern scientific language hemerologion is used to describe two quite different objects. In Egyptology and the study of the Ancient Orient, hemerologion refers to lists with a divinatory (and as a corresponding frame of reference - cosmologic…

Grammarians

(1,796 words)

Author(s): Streck, Michael P. (Munich) | Tosi, Renzo (Bologna) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient In the Ancient Orient, Akkadian scribes acted as grammarians, adding Sumerian translations to Akkadian flective forms, or who provided abstract grammatical explanations for Sumerian syllables. Grammatical texts took the form of a two-columned list; there were no grammatical rules expressed in sentence form. In order to achieve congruence between the non-isomorphic languages of Sumeria and Akkadia, grammarians made up artificial Sumerian forms, neglected morpho-synta…

Epideixis

(438 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] (ἐπίδειξις; epídeixis). One of the three   genera causarum . Aristotle determined the epideixis as the type of a speech that does not elicit the listener's judgement or decision, but simply places him into the role of spectator ( theōrós): the speech itself is what is being tested (Rh. 1358b). It is not a necessary, but a plausible consequence that the function of directing the attention towards the speech itself is supported by certain topics, that is, topics of praise or reprimand, thus giving preference to mimetic t…

Laronia

(60 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] Female critic of sexual moral hypocrisy in Juv. 2,36-65; if this is meant to be a historical person (thus [2]), she could be identical with the L. characterized as a rich widow in Mart. 2,32,5f. (also not definitely historical). Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) Bibliography 1 PIR2 L 113 2 S. Morton Braund, Juvenal. Satires Book 1, 1996, 129.

Parapegma

(485 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] (παράπηγμα; parápēgma) in ancient usage describes a peg calendar, which permitted the tracking of calendar dates (e.g. the 'Fasti Guidizzolenses' for the whole year, InscrIt 13,2,234, but probably also weekday calendars) by the (usually daily) movement of pegs. This form of calendrical orientation by means of individual pegging was particularly interesting where it permitted keeping track of calendar systems which deviated from 'civil' calendars of the time, i.e. for phases of the …

Valerius

(11,988 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family, which was said to have immigrated to Rome under King T. Tatius with V. [I 10] (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,46). The name, derived from the old personal name Valesus/ Valerus, was originally Valesios (cf. V. [I 7]; CIL XII p. 298g: Valesies; Fest. 22; Varro, Rerum divinarum fr. 66 Cardauns [4; 5]); the censor App. Claudius [I 2] introduced the new spelling in 312 BC (cf. Dig. 1,2, 2,36). Because in Antiquity the name was derived (etymologically correctly) from valere, 'to be strong', it was considered to be a good omen ( boni ominis nomen, Cic. Div. 1,102; Cic. Sca…

Vargunteius

(163 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn)
Roman nomen gentile, recorded from the 2nd cent. BC onwards (AE 1997,283; Schulze, 160). [German version] [1] Recitator, 2nd cent. BC Roman recitator of the 2nd cent. BC, who recited the Annales of Ennius [1] to large crowds on particular days (Suet. Gramm. 2) and who was understood in later times as a grammarian. Obtaining a textual edition from the Anecdoton Parisinum (GL 7,534) by conjecture on the name is problematic. Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) Bibliography HLL 1, § 38. [German version] [2] Legate, fell in 53 BC Died in the Parthian War in 53 BC, when, as a legate of M. Licinius …

Week

(1,094 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
Chronological periodicity, typically 4-10 days, linked with particular public activities (religious, political, commercial), often in the form of market days ( nundinae ) [1]. [German version] I. Types Two different forms of 'week' were known in antiquity. (1) The type corresponding to the modern week, of fixed length and ignoring the monthly calendar, only took hold gradually, at first in the form of the seven-day week ( h ebdomas), based on the Sabbath and probably regular from the time of the Jewish exile (587-539 BC), and the eight-day week ( o gdoas) of the Romans ( nundinum), also d…

Messalla

(200 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
Cognomen in the family of the Valerii ( Valerius). The best-known bearers are Manius Valerius Maximus M. ( cos. 263 BC), a commander in the Second Punic War, Marcus Valerius M. Rufus ( cos. 53), a follower of Caesar and antiquarian, and Marcus Valerius M. Corvinus ( cos. suff. 31), a supporter of emperor Augustus, who promoted Tibullus and other contemporaneous poets. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Valerius M. Avienus Legatus senatus in c. AD 396/98, praef. praet. for Italia and Africa As a member of an old consular family (Rut. Nam. 1,271f.; Macr. Sat. 1,6,26), he became l…

Velius

(546 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] [1] V. Cerialis Amicus of Pliny the Younger (Plin. Ep. 4,21). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] D. V. Fidus Senatorial cos. suff. in November/December AD 148, together with M. Calpurnius [II 16] Longus (AE 1996, 1384 = [1]); governor of the province of Syria Palaestina in 150 (PSI IX 1026 = [2]). Member of the Pontifices in 155 (CIL VI 2120). IGLS VI 2777 is probably his burial inscription [3]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) Bibliography 1 J. D'Arms, Memory, Money, and Status at Misenum: Three New Inscriptions from the Collegium of the Augustales, in: JRS 90, 2000, 126-144 2…

Pomponius

(5,501 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family probably deriving from the Italic praenomen Pompo, tracing back, like the Aemilii, Calpurnii and Pinarii, to one of the sons of Numa Pompilius (Plut. Numa 21,2; cf. Nep. Att. 1,1). In the 3rd century BC the Mathones (cf. P. [I 7-9]) achieved consulship, but later the family was insignificant. The most prominent member was a friend of Cicero, T. P. [I 5] Atticus. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P., Cn. People's tribune in 90 BC People's tribune in 90 BC, killed in the Civil War in 82; Cicero quite often heard him in his youth; his j…

Caesar

(5,998 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
I. Historical [German version] A. Youth and early career C. Iulius Caesar was born in 100 BC on the 13th of Quintilis (from 44 BC: Iulius/July); his mother was Aurelia, a daughter of L. Aurelius Cotta ( cos. 119 BC; [1. 327]). His father became praetor in 92 BC, and died 85 BC. Nothing is known of C.'s childhood and early youth. As it was the custom for the Roman aristocracy, C., too, presumably spent his first years in the care of his mother, followed between the ages of 7 and 15 by elementary schooling and grammatical tuition (G…

Persius

(1,141 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] [1] P., C. Roman teacher of rhetoric and orator, 2nd cent. BC A Roman distinguished by his education (Lucil. 592-596 Marx; Cic. Fin. 1,7; Plin. HN pr. 7), who was believed by some contemporaries to have written the speech De sociis et nomine latino (against C. Sempronius Gracchus' policies concerning the allies) for C. Fannius [I 1] in 122 BC, a speech which far outshone Fannius' other speeches in terms of rhetoric (Cic. Brut. 99: 'from the Elders'). More likely one of the first teachers of rhetoric at Rome than a senator.…

Gavius

(1,035 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Walde, Christine (Basle) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
Roman family name, frequently attested in inscriptions, also in the form Cavius [1. 76f.]; in the Republican period its bearers are still politically insignificant; also a Faliscan praenomen [2. 103]. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] G., P. Crucified as a spy of Spartacus 72 BC from Compsa (Lower Italy), was captured and crucified in Sicily in 72 BC by C.  Verres as an alleged spy of the slave leader  Spartacus (Cic. Verr. 2,5,158-170). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] G. Bassus Roman grammarian and antiquarian of the late Republic Roman grammarian and…

Gastronomical poetry

(611 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Ornella (Bologna) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] I. Greek Gastronomical poetry (GP) may be considered a special stream of the parodistic poetry that  Hegemon of Thasos turned into a genuine literary genre in the late 5th cent. BC: light, jesting poetry (though resulting from artistic dedication) sings the delights of the stomach and the table. The lost Δεῖπνον ( Deîpnon, ‘Feast’) of Hegemon was the description of a banquet ( anagraphḗ, Ath. 1,5a; s. also  symposium literature), as are the works of the same name by Numenius of Heraclia (3rd cent. BC, cf. SH 596) and Timachidas of Rhodes (2nd…

Corpus Caesarianum

(554 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] Modern name for the chronologically organized collection of  Caesar's own commentarii or those reporting on his wars. Bks. 1-7 (58-52 BC) and 8 (52/51) of the Bellum Gallicum (BG), 3 bks. On the Bellum civile (49/48; BC), Bellum Alexandrinum (48/47; BAl), Afric(an)um (47/46; BAfr), Hispaniense (45; ending mutilated; BHisp). The almost fully preserved collection already existed in the present form at the time of Suetonius (Suet. Iul. 56,1); Caesar's commentarii were handed down to the Middle Ages in this form only. Elucidation on the history of thei…

Ecclesiastical/Religious law

(574 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] I. Old Testament A religious law in the sense of a legal system existing alongside profane law or even preceding it, cannot be reconstructed for the old Israel. At the centre of recent discussions is the question of the ‘theologizing’ or the ‘Jahvism’ of the law. This refers especially to the concept occurring in Exodus (Ex 20,1 ff.: Decalogue and book of the covenant) of a God  Jehova as a lawgiver who thus functionally occupies a domain which in the Old Orient was reserved for roya…

Nundinae

(43 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] (etymology ‘nine days’), Roman name for the market days or markets taking place every eight days (i.e. every ninth day), and thus also forming a kind of public and private measure of time. Market (II.B.); Week Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)

Fasti

(2,200 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] A. The term Formed as an adjective from the Latin fās (‘divine right’; no etymological link with *fēs or *făs and their derivative terms fēriae, fēstus and fānum can be demonstrated [11. 134]), fastus in technical language is found only in association with dies, and in Rome then signifies those days on which certain public acts were held to be permitted. This concept gave a calendrical digest of such days ─ among which the dies fasti predominate ─ the name fasti. As regards both name and graphic form, the word displaced all other competing terms for  calenda…

Messalla

(170 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
Cognomen in der Familie der Valerii (Valerius). Die bekanntesten Träger sind M. Valerius Maximus M. ( cos. 263 v.Chr.), Feldherr im 2. Pun. Krieg, M. Valerius M. Rufus ( cos. 53), Gefolgsmann Caesars und Antiquar, und M. Valerius M. Corvinus ( cos. suff. 31), Anhänger des Kaisers Augustus und Förderer des Tibullus und anderer Dichter dieser Zeit. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [1] Valerius M. Avienus Legatus senatus ca. 396/98 n. Chr., praef. praet. für Italia und Africa Als Mitglied einer alten konsularen Familie (Rut. Nam. 1,271f.; Macr. Sat. 1,6,26) legatus senatus
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