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Public Opinion

(1,019 words)

Author(s): Reuter , Hans-Richard
[German Version] I. General Concept “Public opinion” is one of the most ambiguous concepts in the history of political ideas and social sciences. on account of its dual empirical/normative status, the concept may refer both to a counterfactual claim and to a social reality. Its antecedent semantics ( fama popularis, vox populi, consensus gentium) may be traced throughout antiquity and the Middle Ages; in the early modern ¶ period, N. Machiavelli underlined the importance of the publica voce et fama as a condition of successful political action. As late as the 18th century…


(3,305 words)

Author(s): Reuter, Hans-Richard
1. Definition and major typesEthics (Greek  ethikḗ [ téchnē], “ethics,” the art of  thos, “custom,” “practice,” “nature”) is reflection on what constitutes good and just conduct – “conduct” understood as human actions performed in freedom and thus capable of being imputed to responsible agents. Despite its character as an autonomous theoretical approach, ethics emerges from a lived ethos; despite its claim to universality, every ethics initially posits particular cultural, religious, or ideological convict…
Date: 2019-10-14


(3,147 words)

Author(s): Reuter, Hans-Richard
1. Begriff und HaupttypenE. (griech. ēthik椃 [ téchnē], »E.«, die Kunst vom 椃thos, »Sitte«, »Brauch«, »Charakter«) ist die Reflexion auf das gute und gerechte Handeln – »Handeln« verstanden als dasjenige menschliche Verhalten, das aus Freiheit vollzogen und somit verantwortlichen Akteuren zugerechnet werden kann. Unbeschadet ihres Charakters als eigenständiger Theorieaufgabe geht E. aus einem gelebten Ethos hervor; und trotz ihres Anspruchs auf Allgemeingültigkeit setzt jede E. zunächst partikulare kulturelle, religiöse oder welt…
Date: 2019-11-19
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