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Public Opinion

(1,019 words)

Author(s): Reuter , Hans-Richard
[German Version] I. General Concept “Public opinion” is one of the most ambiguous concepts in the history of political ideas and social sciences. on account of its dual empirical/normative status, the concept may refer both to a counterfactual claim and to a social reality. Its antecedent semantics ( fama popularis, vox populi, consensus gentium) may be traced throughout antiquity and the Middle Ages; in the early modern ¶ period, N. Machiavelli underlined the importance of the publica voce et fama as a condition of successful political action. As late as the 18th century…

Völkerbund

(334 words)

Author(s): Reuter, Hans-Richard
[English Version] . Die Völkerbundsidee geht – z.T. in Anknüpfung an Motive der jüd.-christl. Eschatologie (Jes 2,2–4) – auf publizistische Pläne zu einer weltweiten Friedensorganisation zurück, die Anfang des 14.Jh. (Pierre Dubois), im 17.Jh. (Maximilien de Sully, W. Penn) und zu Beginn des 18.Jh. (Abbé de St. Pierre), v.a. aber in I. Kants philos. Entwurf »Zum ewigen Frieden« (1795) entwickelt worden waren. Daran orientiert propagierte der amer. Präsident Th.W. Wilson, noch während des 1. Weltkr…

Öffentliche Meinung

(827 words)

Author(s): Reuter, Hans-Richard
[English Version] I. Allgemein »Öfftl. M.« gehört zu den vieldeutigsten Begriffen der polit. Ideengesch. und der Sozialwissenschaften. Infolge seines empirisch-normativen Doppelstatus kann der Begriff sowohl auf einen kontrafaktischen Anspruch wie auf eine soziale Realität verweisen. Die Vorläufersemantik (fama popularis, vox populi, consensus gentium) durchzieht Antike und MA; in der frühen Neuzeit thematisierte N. Machiavelli die publica voce et fama als Bedingung erfolgreichen polit. Handelns. N…

Conscription/National Service

(2,668 words)

Author(s): Reuter, Hans-Richard | Ennuschat, Jörg
[German Version] I. Concept and History – II. Current Legal Situation – III. Ethics – IV. Conscription/National Service of Ministers I. Concept and History 1. Concept Conscription refers to a system of military recruiting based (in contrast to voluntary military ser¶ vice in an army of professional and/or regular soldiers) on the public, legal duty of all citizens capable of serving. Depending on the respective composition of the state's military, conscripted military service can be performed either in militia units or in a standing mobile troop. 2. History The basic notion of …

Church Taxes

(1,135 words)

Author(s): Marré, Heinier | Reuter, Hans-Richard
[German Version] I. History and Law – II. Theological Assessment I. History and Law 1. In Germany – and with some variation also in Switzerland and Scandinavia – church taxes originated with the secularization (II, 1) of the property of the church by the Principal Resolution of the Imperial Deputation in 1803. In compensation, the German princes acquiring this property undertook to meet the financial needs of the church. In the course of the 19th century, the German…

Wehrpflicht/Kriegsdienst

(2,224 words)

Author(s): Reuter, Hans-Richard | Ennuschat, Jörg
[English Version] I. Begriff und Geschichte 1.Begriff Wehrpflicht (W.) bez. ein militärisches Rekrutierungssystem, dem (im Unterschied zum freiwilligen Militärdienst in einer Armee von Berufs- und/oder Zeitsoldaten) eine öfftl.-rechtliche Pflicht aller wehrfähigen Staatsbürger zugrundeliegt. Abhängig von der jeweiligen staatl. Wehrverfassung kann der die allg. W. erfüllende Wehrdienst entweder in Milizverbänden oder in einer ständigen mobilen Truppe geleistet werden. 2.Geschichte Der Grundgedanke einer W. ist alt; sie erfaßte aber in vormoderner Zei…

Weapons

(906 words)

Author(s): Bräunlein, Peter J. | Reuter, Hans-Richard
[German Version] I. Religion and Mythology The evolution of language and the intelligent use of tools and weapons ran parallel courses. Technologically, weapons for hunting and weapons of war were initially identical. Weapons as funerary goods go back to the Upper Paleolithic (Burial: I; Dead, Cult of the: I). The deadly power of weapons explains their unique place in the history of religion. Specially designed knives are used in sacrificial rituals (Human sacrifice, Sacrifice, Ritual killing); their crafting and use is reserved to religious s…

Waffen

(762 words)

Author(s): Bräunlein, Peter J. | Reuter, Hans-Richard
[English Version] I. Kultur- und religionsgeschichtlich Sprachentwicklung und intelligenter Werkzeug- bzw. Waffengebrauch liegen evolutionsgesch. auf gleicher Stufe. Technologisch sind Jagd- und Kriegswaffen zunächst identisch. W. als Grabbeigaben finden sich ab dem Jungpaläolithikum (Bestattung: I., Totenkult/Totenverehrung: I.). Die todbringende Macht der W. erklärt ihre religionshist. Besonderheit. Bei Opferhandlungen (Menschenopfer, Opfer, Ritualtötung) werden bes. geformte Messer verwendet, deren Herstellung und Gebrauch r…

Conscientious Objection

(1,284 words)

Author(s): Grube, Andreas | Reuter, Hans-Richard | Hennig, Martin
[German Version] I. Law – II. Ethics – III. Practical Theology I. Law The right to conscientious objection in Germany, which long existed only as a special privilege granted to the members of the historic peace churches (e.g. the Mennonites in Prussia; see II below), today enjoys special constitutional protection through art. 4 III of German Basic Law (“No one may be forced into armed military service against his conscience”) as the most common example of freedom of cons…

Holy War

(1,736 words)

Author(s): Weippert, Manfred | van Ess, Josef | Reuter, Hans-Richard
[German Version] I. Ancient Near East and Old Testament – II. Islam – III. Ethics I. Ancient Near East and Old Testament The theory that ancient Israel was, under certain circumstances, accustomed to wage “holy wars” in addition to profane ones goes back to G. v. Rad (1947/1951), at least in the form that became a milestone of scholarly research. Drawing on the depictions of war in the OT, he developed a “theory of the holy war” based on three constitutive features: 1. the embedding of the war in rituals that made…

Resistance, Right of

(2,921 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph | de Wall, Heinrich | Reuter, Hans-Richard
[German Version] I. History Ever since classical antiquity, the theory of resistance and the right of resistance have been linked inseparably to the understanding of sovereignty and its limits in both civil society and the church. 1. In the Germanic tribal kingdom of Western, Central, and Northern Europe, three overlapping legal concepts legitimated a right of resistance: (1) the conviction that the ruler is not above the law but subject to the law (grounded in the tradition of the administration of justice by the community of all …

Widerstandsrecht

(2,444 words)

Author(s): Link, Christoph | Wall, Heinrich de | Reuter, Hans-Richard
[English Version] I. Geschichtlich Die Lehre von Widerstand und W. ist seit der Antike untrennbar mit dem Verständnis von Hoheitsgewalt im weltl. wie kirchl. Bereich und deren Grenzen verbunden. 1. In den germ. Stammesreichen West-, Mittel- und Nordeuropas überkreuzen sich in der Legitimation eines W. drei Rechtsgedanken: einmal die Überzeugung, daß der Herrscher nicht über, sondern unter dem Recht (d.h. einer traditionsbegründeten Rechtsüberzeugung der adelsgeführten Dinggenossenschaft aller Wehrfähigen) steht, zum andere…

Völkerrecht

(2,967 words)

Author(s): Hillgruber, Christian | Reuter, Hans-Richard | Schiemann, Gottfried | Otto, Eckart | Krawietz, Birgit
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff 1.Rechtlich V. ist der Inbegriff der die hoheitlichen Beziehungen zw. den Völkerrechtssubjekten regelnden Rechtsnormen. Völkerrechtssubjekte sind in erster Linie die Staaten, außerdem traditionell der Apostolische Stuhl, die von Staaten auf vertraglicher Grundlage geschaffenen und mit (auf ihren Aufgabenkreis begrenzter) Völkerrechtsfähigkeit ausgestatteten Internationalen Organisationen sowie Individuen und Menschengruppen, soweit sie nach dem Willen der Staaten sel…

War

(3,738 words)

Author(s): Reuter, Hans-Richard | Rüpke, Jörg | Rosenberger, Veit | Otto, Eckart | Holmberg, Bengt
[German Version] I. Social Sciences 1. Concept. War is conflict between large groups, peoples, nations, and states conducted by force of arms. The more precise definition of the term and its differentiation from peace are disputed. Behavioral science tends toward a broad definition: war is a specifically human form of intergroup aggression, functional in the context of competition for scarce resources; in it the use of weapons decreases our instinctive inhibition against killing. The theory that war is…

International Law

(3,761 words)

Author(s): Hillgruber, Christian | Reuter, Hans-Richard | Schiemann, Gottfried | Otto, Eckart | Krawietz, Birgit
[German Version] I. Conception – II. Greco-Roman Antiquity – III. Ancient Near East and Israel – IV. Church History – V. Fundamental Theology – VI. Ethics – VII. Church in International Law – VIII. Islam I. Conception 1. Legal conception International law is the quintessence of the legal norms that regulate sovereign relations between the international legal subjects. International legal subjects are primarily states, traditionally also the Apostolic See, the international organizations created by the states on a contractual b…

Peace

(3,762 words)

Author(s): Schmidt-Leukel, Perry | Otto, Eckart | Wengst, Klaus | Strohm, Christoph | Link, Christian | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Peace (negatively: absence of fighting and war; positively: security, wellbeing, and harmony) is considered desirable in all traditional religions, although they also have their specific legitimations of war. In archaic religions, peace is primarily related to the community and understood as a present reality. However, from the beginning of the Christian era, religious developments produced stronger differentiations. Peace is no longer seen as a social phenomenon…
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