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(141 words)

Author(s): Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
[German version] More than 60 MSS of the 11th-16th cents. contain a short poem made up of 91 elegiac distichs, many of them naming Ovid as the author and Nux or a similar word as the title. In this work, a walnut tree laments the poor treatment it is receiving. Some see this as an allegory of Ovid's exile [1]. However, his authorship is questionable [2], even if it can hardly be ruled out conclusively [3]. The little poem is an intelligent creation and contains a number of interesting allusions. Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) Bibliography Edition: F.W. Lenz, 21958  S. Wartena, 1928 (with com…


(104 words)

Author(s): Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
[German version] [1] see  Goose Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) [German version] [2] Love poet, probably 1st cent. BC In a listing of love poets, Ovid (Tr. 2,435) names a certain A., as livelier than (procacior)  Helvius Cinna. Servius maintains that Virgil refers with contempt to a poet of this name ( ... inter strepere anser olores), who had ridiculed him, had written panegyrics to the triumvir Antonius and who had been attacked by Cicero: de Falerno Anseres depellantur (Cic. Phil. 13,11; Serv. ecl. 9,36; 7,21; there is probably no allusion: Prop. 2,34,83 f.). No fragments survive. Ric…


(121 words)

Author(s): Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
[German version] Plin. HN 32,11. 152 mentions a work with this title (‘Fishing’, probably a gen. pl., Ἁλιευτικῶν; Halieutikôn), which he says  Ovid began in exile. Pliny's citations appear to paraphrase the 130 or so Versus Ovidi de piscibus et feris that have been handed down in two MSS of the 8th/9th and 10th cents. On stylistic, linguistic, and metric grounds, the brief fragment cannot be attributed to Ovid. However, it seems very unlikely that it is a post-Plinian forgery. Ultimately, it draws on the ancient zoological tradition. Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) Bibliography Editio…


(306 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
Roman cognomen, probably originally referring to an origin ‘in the mountains’; in the Republican period it was found in the family of the Tarpeii, in the Imperial period also among the Iulii and Venuleii. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] One of the proceres of Domitian One of the proceres (‘leading men’), whom Domitianus [1], according to Juvenal (4,107; 131f.), gathered at his farm in the Alban Hills. He was certainly a senator; as a number of senators of this period bore the cognomen M., identification is uncertain, but he is most likely to have been T. Iunius M., cos. suff…

Elegiae in Maecenatem

(120 words)

Author(s): Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
[German version] In some manuscripts of the  Appendix Vergiliana there are 89 distichs under the heading ‘Maecenas’ that were correctly divided into two parts by J. J. Scaliger (1572f.). The first part (v. 1-144) is a lamentation and defence of Maecenas that ends with an epitaph. The second is a speech of the dying Maecenas to Augustus. The use of myth is on occasion obscure, expression and metre are consistent with the Augustan period. The relationship to the  Consolatio ad Liviam and to  Seneca the Younger is disputed and, therefore, its dating is uncertain. Richmond, John A. (Blackro…


(2,458 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Christes, Johannes (Berlin) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family, derived from the first name Lucius [II], widespread from the 2nd cent. BC onwards. The satirical poet L. is the best-known of them. [I 6]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] A friend of M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus, who wanted to protect the latter in 42 BC at Philippi by pretending to be him (App. B Civ. 4,542-545). After that he followed M. Antonius [I 9] with similar loyalty until they both died in the year 30. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] L., Sex. People's tribune 87 BC, thrown from the Tarpeian rock beca…


(3,311 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Et al.
Name of an ancient Roman patrician lineage (on inscriptions also Fourios), derived from the praenomen Fusus and also occurring occasionally in the original form Fusius in the literary tradition; the family perhaps came from Tusculum (cf. the family grave of the Furii ILLRP 895-903). The numerous members of the gens from the early Republic in the 5th/4th cents. BC are scarcely tangible as historical persons, and their history is in part later annalistic invention. Most well known is the ‘Saviour of Rome’ after the catas…


(212 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
Plebeian gentilicium. [German version] [1] P. (1st cent BC) P. (?), one of the accusers of P. Sestius 56 BC de vi (Cic. Vatin. 3,41). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] P. Legate 82 BC P., legate (?) of C. Norbanus in 82 BC (App. B Civ. 1,91). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] P., pontifex minor (middle of 1st cent. BC) P., pontifex minor before 69 BC until after 57 (MRR 2,71; 135; 3,14) identical with [1] or [2] ? Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [4] Celsus, private secretary of the young  Tiberius Celsus, private secretary ( comes scribaque) of th…


(181 words)

Author(s): Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Friend of Ovid Among his best friends, Ovid mentions  Propertius,  Ponticus, and Bassus quoque clarus iambis (Ov. Tr. 4,10,45-47). This B. could therefore likely be the addressee of Prop. 1,4,1 and perhaps Horace's friend (Carm. 1,36,14). No fragments exist whatsoever. It cannot be determined whether the iambographer is also identical with  Iulius B., the rhetor mentioned by the older Seneca, who consectari ... solebat res sordidas (Contr. 10,1,13). Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) Bibliography H. Bardon, 2, 52. [German version] [2] Military aid to praef…


(214 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
[German version] [1] Roman proper name Rare Roman proper name (‘Wolf’) [3. 115], quite common as a cognomen, in the Republican period of L. Cornelius [I 51] Lentulus L. ( cos. in 16 BC) and more widespread among the Rutilii in the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 257 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 327 3 Schulze. [German version] [2] Poet Is named by Ovid (Pont. 4,16,26) as the author of a poem about the return of Menelaus [1] and Helene [1] from Troy. It may be that L. is identical with the orator P. Rutilius Lupus or …


(1,222 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Probably originally the vulgar Latin form of the Roman proper name Plautius, an independent nomen gentile at the latest from the 1st cent. BC onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P. Gallus, L. Lat. rhetoric teacher, 1st cent. BC The first teacher of Latin rhetoric attested for Rome at the beginning of the 1st cent. BC who held his classes in Latin and on Roman matters and was very popular (cf. Cic. in Suet. Gram. 26). An edict of the censors of 92 BC, especially Cicero's teacher Licinius [I 10]…

Consolatio ad Liviam (Epicedion Drusi)

(240 words)

Author(s): Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
[German version] In about 1450 a MS that has since been lost was brought to Rome, which is the source [1] for the work preserved in several MSS of the latter half of that century, as P. ... Ovidii Nasonis ... ad Liviam de morte Drusi. This poem was included in editions of Ovid from 1471 onwards. It takes the form of an address to  Livia Drusilla: the death of her son Nero  Claudius Drusus in Germany in 9 BC is lamented (1-166) and the funeral rites described (167-264 or 298), before it reverts to largely traditional consolatory themes (265 or 299-474). The  Elegiae in Maecenatem may contain allusio…


(161 words)

Author(s): Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
[German version] Surviving manuscripts under this name ( Appendix Vergiliana) include 19 short poems: 3 Priapea and 16 mixed ones, obviously the result of confusion in earlier collections ( C. et Priapea et Epigrammata: Donat. vita Verg. 56; Priape a C. Epigrammata: Servius, vita Verg. 15). The title (κατὰ λεπτόν; katà leptón) is Alexandrian and means ‘small things’ or ‘smaller poems’. The collection is metrically very varied. The influence of Catullus and parallels with Virgil can be observed in these Priapea -- which correspond with the   Priapea in the large…

Appendix Vergiliana

(458 words)

Author(s): Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
[German version] In the 1st cent. AD, Lucan, Statius and Martial attributed the   Culex to Virgil, and Quintilian quotes   Catalepton 2 under his name. Perhaps with recourse to Suetonius, Donatus claims (vita Vergiliana 56-65) that Virgil wrote Catalepton et Priapea et Epigrammata et Diras, item Cirim et Culicem, cum esset annorum XVI ... etiam de qua ambigitur Aetnam, and Servius (vita Vergiliana 14 f.) names septem sive octo libros hos: Cirin Aetnam Culicem Priapea Catalepton Epigrammata Copam Diras. A complicated manuscript tradition [1] hands down these works as Virgi…


(126 words)

Author(s): Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
[English version] Mehr als 60 Hss. des 11.-16. Jh. überliefern ein kurzes Gedicht aus 91 elegischen Distichen, für das viele dieser Hss. Ovidius als Autor und Nux o.ä. als Titel angeben. In diesem Werk beklagt ein Walnußbaum die schlechte Behandlung, die ihm zuteil wird. Einige sehen darin eine Allegorie des Exils Ovids [1]. Dessen Verfasserschaft ist allerdings fraglich [2], wenn auch kaum sicher auszuschließen [3]. Das kleine Gedicht ist intelligent gemacht und enthält einige interessante Anspielungen. Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) Bibliography Ed.: F.W. Lenz, 21958  S. Wa…


(215 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
Plebeischer Gentilname. [English version] [1] P. P. (1. Jh. v. Chr.) (?), einer der Ankläger des P. Sestius 56 v. Chr. de vi (Cic. Vatin. 3,41). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [2] P. P., Legat 82 v. Chr. Legat (?) des C. Norbanus 82 v. Chr. (App. civ. 1,91). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [3] P. P., Pontifex minor (Mitte 1. Jh. v. Chr.) Pontifex minor vor 69 v. Chr. bis nach 57 (MRR 2,71; 135; 3,14) - identisch mit [1] oder [2] ? Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [4] A. Celsus Privatsekretär des jungen Tiberius, 1. Jh. v. Chr. Privatsekretär ( comes s…


(838 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
Lat. gentile name (Etruscan arntni ?) also as Arentius in inscriptions, derived from the Etruscan name Arruns ([1]; ThLL 2,647). The gens appeared in Rome in the 1st cent. BC, attained the consulate under Augustus and was then probably accepted into the patriciate at that time (see Stat. Silv. 1.2.71 concerning the poet Arruntius [II 12] Stella). I. Republic [German version] [I 1] A. Father and son, died 43 BC In 43 BC, father and son were proscribed outlaws by the Triumvirate and killed (App. B Civ. 4,86). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] A., L. (middle of 1st cent. BC) In…


(98 words)

Author(s): Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
[English version] [1] s. Gans s. Gans Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA) [English version] [2] Liebesdichter, 1. Jh. v. Chr.? In einer Aufzählung von Liebesdichtern nennt Ovid (trist. 2,435) einen gewissen A. ausgelassener (procacior) als Helvius Cinna. Servius behauptet, Vergil weise verächtlich auf einen Dichter dieses Namens hin ( ... inter strepere anser olores), der ihn verspottet habe, Panegyriken auf den Triumvirn Antonius geschrieben habe und von Cicero angegriffen worden sei: de Falerno Anseres depellantur (Cic. Phil. 13,11; Serv. ecl. 9,36; 7,21; wohl keine A…


(186 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
[English version] [1] röm. Personenname Seltener röm. Eigenname (“Wolf”) [3. 115], häufiger als Cognomen, in republikan. Zeit des L. Cornelius [I 51] Lentulus L. ( cos. 16 v.Chr.) und bei den Rutilii, in der Kaiserzeit weiter verbreitet. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 257 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 327 3 Schulze. [English version] [2] Dichter Wird von Ovid (Pont. 4,16,26) als der Verf. eines Gedichtes über die Rückkehr des Menelaos [1] und der Helene [1] von Troia gen. Möglicherweise ist L. mit dem Redner P. Rutilius Lup…


(116 words)

Author(s): Richmond, John A. (Blackrock, VA)
[English version] Plin. nat. 32,11. 152 erwähnt ein Werk mit dem Titel H. (‘Fischerei, wahrscheinlich ein Gen. Pl., Ἁλιευτικῶν), welches Ovid, wie er sagt, im Exil ‘begann’. Plinius' Zitate scheinen die gut 130 Versus Ovidi de piscibus et feris zu paraphrasieren, die durch zwei Hss. des 8./9. und 10. Jh. überliefert sind. Das kurze Fr. kann aus stilistischen, sprachlichen und metr. Gründen nicht Ovid zugeschrieben werden, doch scheint nach-plinianische Fälschung sehr unwahrscheinlich zu sein. Es schöpft letztlich aus der ant. zoologischen Trad. Richmond, John A. (Blackrock,…
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