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(591 words)

Author(s): Roxborogh, John
[German Version] Malaysia comprises West Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia) and the states of Sarawak and Sabah on the island of Borneo (Indonesia). Indigenous bumiputras (“sons of the soil”) total some 65% of the population (28 million in 2008), comprising Malay and aboriginal peoples in West Malaysia, and Iban and other tribal groups in East Malaysia. Approximately 26% are of Chinese descent and 8% Indian. The coming of Islam is associated with South Indian traders and the sultanate of Melaka in the 14th century. The ¶ Portuguese conquest in 1511 further dispersed Islam in the re…

Williams, John

(146 words)

Author(s): Roxborogh, John
[German Version] (Jun 29, 1796, London, UK – Nov 20, 1839, Erromanga, Vanuatu), London Missionary Society missionary to the Pacific. Williams and his wife Mary arrived in Tahiti in 1817. Based in Raiatea (Tahiti), the Cook Islands, and later Samoa, Williams built and sailed ships to transport Polynesian Christians as teachers and missionaries across the Pacific. On a successful visit to England (1834–1838) he oversaw the printing of the Rarotongan New Testament. After returning to the Pacific he w…


(5,637 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich | vom Bruch, Rüdiger | Roxborogh, John
[German Version] I. History 1. Middle Ages and Reformation. The university, the most important academic institution devoted to teach-¶ ing (Education/Formation) and research today, is a creation of the medieval West. Its appearance marked a deep caesura in the history of Western science, especially in the history of theology (Theology, History/Historiography of). The multiplicity of institutions involved in acquiring and transmitting knowledge (monasteries, cathedral schools, monastery schools, schools run by inde…


(5,112 words)

Author(s): Berner, Ulrich | Hutter, Manfred | Auffarth, Christoph | Leicht, Reimund | Roxborogh, John | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology The word syncretism in its broadest sense denotes any blend or combination of diverse cultural phenomena. This usage derives from an apparently reasonable but false etymology: syncretism is commonly derived from the Greek verb συνκεράννυμι/ synkeránnymi, “mix.” In fact, however, it is a neologism coined by Plutarch ( Mor. 490b), who called the way Cretans came together in the face of external enemies synkretismos. Erasmus of Rotterdam than borrowed the term and introduced it into the language of Christian theology. In theology th…

Theological Education

(4,903 words)

Author(s): Meireis, Torsten | Hart, Darryl G. | Huhn, Michael. | Roxborogh, John | Kaufmann, Uri | Et al.
[German Version] I. Christianity 1. Europe a. Concept. Christian theological education is a qualification process that involves many different stages; in general its goal is a paid or volunteer position (Voluntary work and associations) in a church that proclaims the gospel and engages in social service (Diakonia) in various fields. Like the churches’ official ministries (Office), institutional training courses vary regionally and denominationally. Determinants include each church’s understanding of the…

Freedom of Religion

(3,650 words)

Author(s): Schlenke, Dorothee | Kronauer, Ulrich | Link, Christoph | Ohst, Martin | Witte, John | Et al.
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics – III. Philisophy – V. History – VI. Mission I. Dogmatics Freedom of religion, as generally understood, combines freedom of belief, of conscience, and creed, as well as freedom to practice one's religion (cf. German Basic Law, art. 4, §§1, 2), in one fundamental right. Dogmatics needs to clarify the relationship between religious certainty and freedom. A statement consonant with Reformation belief would run as follows: If Christian certainty, as certainty about the …


(1,166 words)

Author(s): Roxborogh, John | Yeow, Choo-Lak
1. General Situation The island of Singapore was obtained from Malay rulers in Johor in 1819 by Stamford Raffles (1781–1826). Established as a free trading port, it became part of the British Straits Settlements along with Malacca and Penang. The British surrendered to the Japanese in February 1942, and in 1946 Singapore became a crown colony. After independence in 1963 it was part of the Federation of Malaysia until 1965. Under the leadership of Lee Kwan Yee (prime minister 1959–90), Singapore became a prosperous modern state, acutely conscious of the importance …

Social Ethics

(15,819 words)

Author(s): Bedford-Strohm, Heinrich | Curran, Charles E. | De La Torre, Miguel A. | Hinga, Teresia | Roxborogh, John | Et al.
1. General 1.1. Term Though the term “social ethics” occurred in the 19th century, development of this field as a theological discipline took place only in the 20th century. In ethics a distinction is usually made between individual and social ethics (Ethics 7.1.2). But the distinction should not become separation, for individual ethics, having to do with the conduct of individuals in their own fields of activity and the pertinent attitudes, virtues, and duties involved, cannot be divorced from the …


(4,646 words)

Author(s): Berner, Ulrich | Hutter, Manfred | Auffarth, Christoph | Leicht, Reimund | Roxborogh, John | Et al.
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff Das Wort »S.« in seiner weitesten Bedeutung bez. jede Verbindung oder Mischung verschiedener kultureller Phänomene. Diese Verwendung erklärt sich aus der scheinbar naheliegenden, falschen Etym.: »S.« ist meistens von dem griech. Verbum συn̆κερα´n̆n̆υμι/synkeránnymi, »mischen«, abgeleitet worden. Tatsächlich handelt es sich aber um eine Wortschöpfung Plutarchs (mor. 490b), der das Verhalten der Kreter, die sich gegenüber äußeren Feinden zusammenschließen, als »synkretismos« bez. Durch Erasmus von Ro…


(4,886 words)

Author(s): Köpf, Ulrich | vom Bruch, Rüdiger | Roxborogh, John
[English Version] I. Geschichtlich 1.Mittelalter und Reformation Die bis heute wichtigste Institution wiss. Bildung und Forschung ist eine Schöpfung des ma. Abendlands. Ihre Entstehung bedeutete einen tiefen Einschnitt in der Gesch. der Wissenschaft, bes. auch in der Theologiegeschichte. Die bis ins 12.Jh. hinein herrschende Vielfalt an Institutionen der Wissensgewinnung und -vermittlung (Klöster, Domschulen, Stiftsschulen, Schulen freier Lehrer) wurde zusammengefaßt, der Reichtum ihrer Arbeitswe…


(3,276 words)

Author(s): Schlenke, Dorothee | Kronauer, Ulrich | Link, Christoph | Ohst, Martin | Witte, John | Et al.
[English Version] I. Dogmatisch Unter R. werden nach herrschender Auslegung Glaubens-, Gewissens- und Bekenntnisfreiheit sowie die Freiheit der Religionsausübung (Art.4 Abs.1 und 2 GG) zu einem Grundrecht zusammengezogen. Der somit dogmatisch zu klärende Zusammenhang von rel. Gewißheit und Freiheit stellt sich nach reformatorischer Überzeugung folgendermaßen dar: Wird christl. Gewißheit als Gewißheit der Wahrheit des Evangeliums von Jesus Christus durch die freie, geistgewirkte Selbstvergegenwärtig…


(152 words)

Author(s): Roxborogh, John
[English Version] Williams, John (29.6.1796 London – 20.11.1839 Erromanga, Vanuatu), Missionar der London Missionary Society (LMS) im Pazifik. W. kam mit seiner Frau Mary 1817 nach Tahiti. Er war auf Raiatea (Tahiti), auf den Cook-Inseln und später auf Samoa stationiert und baute bzw. fuhr Schiffe, um polynesische Christen als Lehrer und Missionare quer durch den Pazifik zu befördern. Während eines erfolgreichen Englandaufenthalts (1834–1838) beaufsichtigte er die Drucklegung des rarotonganischen N…

Theologische Ausbildung

(4,418 words)

Author(s): Meireis, Torsten | Hart, Darryl G. | Huhn, Michael | Roxborogh, John | Kaufmann, Uri | Et al.
[English Version] I. Christentum 1.Europa a) Begriff Christl. theol. A. ist ein Qualifikationsprozeß, der verschiedenste Stufen umfaßt und i. allg. auf eine haupt- oder ehrenamtliche Teilnahme (Ehrenamt) an der Verkündigung und Diakonie der jeweiligen Kirche in unterschiedlichen Handlungsfeldern zielt. Wie die kirchl. Ämter, so sind auch die institutionellen Ausbildungsgänge regional und konfessionell verschieden. Determinanten sind u.a. das jeweilige Verständnis von Theologie, Verkündigung, Liturgi…