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(807 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Uri
An infinitive of the Arabic root ʾ-l-f which has been explained in various ways by Muslim commentators of the Qurʾān as well as by modern scholars. It occurs in one qurʾānic chapter (q 106:1-2), where it is annexed to the name Quraysh (q.v.), and is associated with the “journey of the winter and the summer” (see caravan ). Most of the exegetical explanations are based on the view that ilāf Quraysh describes the manner in which the Meccan people of Quraysh conducted the winter and the summer journey. They revolve around the basic range of meanings of the root ʾ-l-f, which are “to resort habitu…


(833 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Uri
A wife of the prophet Muḥammad and a daughter of the caliph ʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb. Ibn Saʿd relates that she was born in Mecca five years before Muḥammad's first revelation (ca. 605 c.e.). Her mother was Zaynab bt. Maẓʿūn. Ḥafṣa emigrated to Medina with her first husband, Khunays b. Ḥudhāfa, of the Sahm, a clan of the Quraysh (q.v.). He is believed to have died shortly after the battle of Badr (q.v.; 2/624) in which he participated (Ibn Saʿd, Ṭabaqāt, viii, 81), although some say that he was killed during the battle of Uḥud (Ibn Ḥajar, Iṣāba, vii, 582; see expeditions and battles ). Ibn Qutayba, how…


(603 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Uri
The remains of a destroyed abode of sinful people. The total destruction of former generations (q.v.) is a historical lesson for contemporary sinners (see sin, major and minor ), as stated, for example, in q 19:98: “And how many a generation (qarn) have we destroyed before them! Do you see any one of them or hear a sound of them?” (see geography; history and the qurʾān). Among these extinct sinners there were the peoples of ʿĀd (q.v.) and Thamūd (q.v.) about whom it is declared in q 69:8 that one cannot see any remnant (bāqiya) of them. The Qurʾān emphasizes that God has cut off the last of them ( quṭiʿ…


(1,053 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Uri
A believer who is neither a polytheist (mushrik) nor a Jew or a Christian (see polytheism and atheism; jews and judaism; christians and christianity). The Arabic root ḥ-n-f initially means “to incline,” so that ḥanīf (pl. ḥunafāʾ) is most probably understood in the Qurʾān as one who has abandoned the prevailing religions and has inclined to a religion of his own. It occurs once as a synonym of muslim (q 3:67) and also in juxtaposition with the verb aslama (q 4:125). The qurʾānic prototype of the ideal ḥanīf is Abraham (q.v.; q 3:67; 16:120), and being a ḥanīf signifies belonging to the “rel…


(12,002 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Uri
The Muslim Prophet to whom God's revelation was “sent down” ( nuzzila,q 47:2; see prophets and prophethood; revelation and inspiration). On three occasions the name is followed by the title “messenger” (q.v.; rasūl), i.e. God's messenger (q 3:144; 33:40; 48:29). ¶ Names and appellations When, however, the Qurʾān addresses the Prophet directly in the second person, he is not referred to as “Muḥammad,” but is called by various appellations that indicate his relation to God. Here, apart from rasūl, the title most frequently used is al-nabī, “prophet” (q 8:64; 66:8, etc.). The appellati…

Jews and Judaism

(8,618 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Uri
Terminology The Arabic term denoting “Jews” is yahūd, which occurs seven times in the Qurʾān. The form hūd also denotes the same and appears in this sense three times. The singular, yahūdī, occurs once. From yahūd/hūd was derived the secondary verb hāda, which means “to be a Jew/Jewish.” “Those who were Jews” (hādū) is mentioned ten times. This verb appears once with the complementary ilā (q 7:156), in which case it denotes “to return to.” It is put into the mouth of Moses (q.v.), who says to God: “We have returned (hudnā) to you.” Obviously, this is a play on yahūd, on behalf of whom Moses is…


(888 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Uri
A company of travelers on a journey through a desert or hostile region; also, the vehicles which transport the company. The most prominent qurʾānic word denoting a “caravan” is ʿīr, which occurs three times in q 12, “Joseph” (Sūrat Yūsuf; q 12:70, 82, 94). Arabic lexicographers say that originally this term denoted camels, asses or mules that carried provisions of corn but that it was later applied to any caravan (see camel ). Some say, however, that in the Qurʾān it signifies asses not camels (Lane, q.v. ʿīr) which does not comply with the biblical version of the story of Joseph …


(554 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Uri
Ancestor of the people of Israel (Isrāʾīl), whose name appears most frequently in the Qurʾān within the title “Children of Israel” (q.v.; Banū Isrāʾīl). Only in two places does it occur separately (q 3:93; 19:58). The commentators identify Israel with Jacob (q.v.; Yaʿqūb), the son of Isaac (q.v.; Isḥāq). q 3:93, which deals with Jewish dietary restrictions (see jews and judaism ), makes allusion to a specific event in Israel's life. It ¶ is stated here that all food was lawful (see lawful and unlawful ) to the Children of Israel save what Israel forbade for himself before the Torah (q.v.) was…


(2,856 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Uri
Name of a tribe in Mecca (q.v.) to which Muḥammad belonged (for the meaning of the name, see Watt, Ḳuraysh). It is mentioned only once in the Qurʾān (q 106:1), in a chapter dealing with their winter and summer caravans (see caravan ). The exegetes quote detailed traditions about their pre-Islamic commercial system which acquired international dimensions, their trade caravans being said to have reached as far as Byzantium in the north (see byzantines ), Persia in the east, Abyssinia (q.v.) in the west and Yemen (q.v.) in the south. The qurʾānic chapter itself requests the Quraysh…


(688 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Uri
Objects used to carry people or things from place to place, on land or sea or through the air. The Qurʾān mentions several kinds of vehicles while attributing their existence to God's bounty (see blessing; grace), as stated, for example, in q 17:70: “And surely we have honored the children of Adam, and we carry them in the land and the sea (see earth; water), and we have given them of the good things (see sustenance )….” The same idea recurs in q 10:22: “He it is who makes you travel by land and sea” (see also trips and voyages; journey). The vehicles operating on land are beasts of burden, and…


(547 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Uri
[German Version] is a city in the Ḥiğāz (in the north west of Saudi Arabia) approx. 275 km from the Red Sea, 715 m above sea level. The northern parts of Medina from the mosque of the Prophet Muḥammad up to the mountain Uḥud are referred to in the sources as as-Sāfila (Lower Medina) and the southern districts up ¶ to the village of Qubāʾ as al-ʿĀliya (Upper Medina). The pre-Islamic name for Medina is Yathrib. It occurs once in the Qurʾān (33:13) and appears as Yathrippa already in Ptolemy the Gnostic. The form “Medina” (“city”) is the more prevalent name…


(1,644 words)

Author(s): Rubin, Uri
[German Version] I. The Quranic Muḥammad – II. The Traditional Details of Muḥammad's Life – III. Muḥammad in the Eyes of the Believers – IV. Modern Research on the Life of Muḥammad (Arab. “The Praised One,” patronym Abū l-Qasim; c. 569 – Jun 8, 632, Medina) I. The Quranic Muḥammad Our main sources of information about Muḥammad are (a) the Qurʾān and (b) the extra-quranic biographies of Muḥammad. The Qurʾān contains occasional references to specific events in Muḥammad's life, but the allusions are vague and tell us hardly anything coherent a…


(7,901 words)

Author(s): Beinhauer-Köhler, Bärbel | Jeremias, Jörg | Gray, Rebecca | Hayoun, Maurice-Ruben | Aune, David E. | Et al.
[English Version] I. Religionswissenschaftlich 1.Der BegriffProphetie übersteigt in der den Ereignissen zugewiesenen Bedeutung Individualerfahrungen in Mystik, Ekstase oder bei Inspiration sowie situationsbezogene Aktivitäten etablierter Funktionsträger, etwa von Priestern (Priestertum), Schamanen oder Wahrsagern (Divination/Mantik). Von Propheten (P.) auf die jeweilige Gottheit zurückgeführte Offenbarungen haben wegweisenden ethischen Charakter für eine Gemeinschaft.Der Begriff προϕη´της/prophē´tēs entstammt der griech. Religionsgesch., wo…

Prophets and Prophecy

(8,753 words)

Author(s): Beinhauer-Köhler, Bärbel | Jeremias, Jörg | Gray, Rebecca | Hayoun, Maurice-Ruben | Aune, David E. | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. The term. In the significance ascribed to religious phenomena, prophecy surpasses individual experiences of mysticism, ecstasy, and inspiration, as well as the situational activities of established functionaries such as priests (Priesthood), shamans (Shamanism), or diviners (Divination). Revelations ascribed by prophets to the deity they serve give ethical guidance to a community. The term προφήτης/ prophḗ tēs derives from ancient Greek religion, where it referred initially to local specialists, who are hard to …
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