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City

(3,219 words)

Author(s): Editors, The | Schäfers, Bernhard | Grünberg, Wolfgang
1. Biblical Aspects 1.1. General Biblical history includes a rich theology of the city, which we might see as a parable of all human history and destiny in its vertical relation to God. From the first narratives in Genesis (4ff.) to their counterpart in Revelation (17ff.), the city is a central locus of the development of sinful humanity and of the drama of God’s action both in a response of judgment and in an initiative of grace and salvation. 1.2. Negative Only when the age of innocence in the garden (Genesis 2) ended with disobedience and expulsion (chap. 3) did the history of the city be…

Social Sciences

(595 words)

Author(s): Schäfers, Bernhard
[German Version] I. Like many other terms in the language of politics and society, the term social sciences emerged in France in the late 18th century ( sciences sociales) and spread in the late 19th century. It is a collective term for the academic disciplines devoted to human sociality in its various forms and senses. The German term Gesellschaftswissenschaften, often treated as synonymous, is not quite accurate, since strictly speaking only sociology, politology (Political science), and economics relate unambiguously to society ( Gesellschaft). All other disciplines called…

Sociology

(5,316 words)

Author(s): Schäfers, Bernhard | Leppin, Volker | Meyer-Blanck, Michael | de Boutemard, Bernhard Suin | Knoblauch, Hubert
[German Version] I. Definition Sociology is an empirical social science; its field of study encompasses the relatively enduring forms and structures of social action (Action, Science of ) and the resultant social units, from entities like the family and kinship group and social groups to large-scale organizations and states. The word itself is an artificial combination of Latin socius (“companion, fellow”) and Greek logos (“word, truth,” in an extended sense “knowledge”). It appears for the first time in vol. IV of the Cours de philosophie positive of A. Comte (1838). As a scie…

Sozialwissenschaften

(516 words)

Author(s): Schäfers, Bernhard
[English Version] . I. Der Begriff S. wurde, wie viele andere Begriffe der polit.-sozialen Sprache, seit Ende des 18.Jh. in Frankreich entwickelt (sciences sociales) und nach 1880 auch in Deutschland üblich. Er dient als Sammelbez. für jene wiss. Disziplinen, in denen das Soziale in seinen unterschiedlichen Ausprägungen und Bedeutungen den Objektbereich bestimmt. Die oft synonyme Verwendung des Begriffs Gesellschaftswiss. ist nicht ganz exakt, weil streng genommen nur in der Soziologie, der Politol…

Soziologie

(4,760 words)

Author(s): Schäfers, Bernhard | Leppin, Volker | Meyer-Blanck, Michael | Suin de Boutemard, Bernhard | Knoblauch, Hubert
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff Die S. ist eine empirische Sozialwiss., deren Gegenstandsbereich die relativ dauerhaften Formen und Strukturen des sozialen Handelns (Handlungswissenschaft) und die daraus resultierenden sozialen Gebilde sind, von den gemeinschaftlichen der Familie/ Verwandtschaft und sozialen Gruppen bis zu den gesellschaftlichen der Organisationen und Staaten. Der Begriff S. ist ein Kunstwort, das sich aus lat. socius (»Gefährte, Mitmensch«) und griech. logos (»Wort, Wahrheit«, im …