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Nuntiatio

(256 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
[German version] is encountered in religious law (e.g. as in the announcing of the auspices by the augures ), in criminal law (as a ‘declaration’ similar to the public announcement by the denuntiator or delator), in fiscal law (as nuntiatio ad fiscum, Callistratus Dig. 49,14,1 pr.) and in civil law. Here nuntiatio denotes in particular the objection to another person's building alterations ( operis novi nuntiatio , Ulp. Dig. 39,1,pr.): a) on the basis of a right of obstruction, b) for the purpose of damage prevention or c) for the enforcement of the observanc…

Habitatio

(223 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
[German version] Initially means home, e.g. as the object of purchase and sale (  locatio conductio ; Dig. 2,14,4; 19,2,5) or a protective object of the lex Cornelia de iniuriis (Dig. 47,10,5,5). Habitatio also means the right to live, which is founded in part on legacy (  legatum ) (Dig. 7,8,10 pr.). The relationship of the habitatio to the   usus and the   usus fructus (usufruct) was doubtful. In effect ( effectu quidem) the habitatio legata ‘almost’ ( paene) was covered by the usus legatus (Papin./Ulp. Dig. 7,8,10 pr.). The Roman jurists occupied themselves with questions lik…

Adluvio

(240 words)

Author(s): Sauerwein, Friedrich (Heidelberg) | Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
(geographical/geological alluvium, alluvial). [German version] Geography Alluvia are young soils created by sediments deposited along coastlines, in low-lying marshes and valleys, particularly extensive in river flood plains and estuaries. Thus, modern inland towns such as  Pella or  Ephesus and many others in ancient times were on or near the coast. As a technical term used by lawyers and agrimensores ( Surveyors: Cic. Orat. 1,173; Cod. lust. 7,41), adluvio refers to the increase in size through these natural processes of individual owners' land ( accessio). Sauerwein, Friedr…

Mancipatio

(507 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
[German version] first occurs in Pliny (HN 9,35,117 mancupatio) in place of mancipium ( mancupium), to describe an ancient Roman civil law action establishing power over persons ( mancipium ) or objects ( dominium ). The mancipatio procedure for the 2nd cent. AD is depicted as follows (Gai. Inst. 1,119): in the presence of five witnesses and a bearer of the scales ( libripens), all of them Roman citizens of full age ( quirites ), the person receiving the object declares as follows: a) that he is the owner under Quiritary law, and: b) that he has pur…

Servitus

(248 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
[German version] ('Subserviency') in Roman law meant the encumbrance of a piece of land in the sense that the owner was obliged to tolerate certain impacts enacted by the encumbrancer or was not allowed to impact another piece of land in certain ways (however: there was no obligation towards positive actions, in faciendo consistere nequit). Servitus on rural tracts of land ( servitus praediorum rusticorum) included road easements ( iter), paths for driving cattle ( actus), roads for transporting goods ( via), water ducts ( aquae ductus). In the city, servitus ( servitus praediorum urban…

Hypotheke

(669 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
(ὑποθήκη; hypothḗkē). [German version] [1] Legal term Legal Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden) [German version] A. Greek law The hypotheke (ὑποθήκη = deposit, literally ‘place under’) is encountered in Attic law as an encumbrance upon property, houses, businesses, as security on loan provisions. Stones of hypothekehóroi ) specified the mortgaged encumbrance. The hypotheke was an institution found throughout Greece, but outside Attica the designation of the mortgaged property by the hóroi is found only on a few Aegean islands. The hypotheke was enforced by foreclosure. This …

Traditio

(588 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
[German version] Transfer or procuration of possession ( possessio ) in Roman law. In the ius gentium (common law of the 'peoples', i.e. non-citizens) it was equivalent to the forms of reassignment of the mancipatio and in iure cessio in the ius [D.] civile (law for Roman citizens, Gai. Inst. 2,65; Dig. 41,1,9,3), which applied to res mancipi alone, while the traditio sufficed for res nec mancipi (e.g. clothing, gold, silver). It required a iusta causa (legal basis, e.g. sale, gift, Gai. Inst. 2,19 f.; Paul. Dig. 41,1,31 pr.). If a res mancipi, e.g. a piece of Italian land, was merely…

Emphyteusis

(285 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
[German version] (hereditary leasehold). The technical term first appeared in an Imperial constitution of AD 386 (Gratianus/Valentinianus/Theodosius/Arcadius Cod. Iust. 11,62,7). Even earlier, the term fundus emphyteutici iuris (Cod. Iust. 11,62,1) crops up in a constitution of 315. Around that time emphyteusis appears, along with the original Roman right to ager vectigalis, as the Hellenistic form of hereditary leasehold . Ager vectigalis is communal land (  ager publicus ) that is made available, in exchange for rent ( Taxes), for cultivation in perpetuity ( in perpetuum) (D…

Alienatio

(285 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
[German version] means alienation, in some cases also the authority to alienate, but not yet sale (Dig. 50,16,67 pr.). Cicero (Top. 5.28) defines abalienatio as genus for traditio alteri nexu (i.e.   mancipatio ) and   in iure cessio . Gaius (Inst. 2.65) adds to this   usucapio ( alienareiure civili) and distinguishes from it alienare iure naturali, which includes, for instance,   traditio . The meaning of alienatio also covers awarding of a thing by miscarriage of justice (Dig. 40,7,29,1). The praetorian edict is concerned with regulations on alienatio iudicii mutandi causa (for the p…

Locus

(522 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
[German version] [1] Most undeveloped part of a country estate The mostly undeveloped part of a country estate ( fundus ). The estate itself forms an economic unit ( integrum aliquid, Dig. 50,16,60 pr.). The classification as a fundus or locus depends on the - dividing or linking - designation ( opinio, constitutio or similar) by the owner, be it by naming ( appellatio), by changing in the relationship of the previous nomenclature (Dig. 31,86,1; 33,7,20,7) or by changing in the bookkeeping (Dig. 32,91,3,), be it - for linking - in the course of an additional acquisition (Plin. Ep. 3,19). The lo…

Dominus

(367 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
[German version] ‘Master’ (generally, e.g. Cic. Leg. 2,15; Plin. Ep. 4,11,6). Domine/domina is from time immemorial the form of address used by children to their parents (Suet. Aug. 53,1; CIL X 7457 domine pater); the form also occurs between husband and wife (as in Scaevola Dig. 32,41 pr. domina uxor, Paulus Dig. 24,1,57 domine carissime), between close relatives, friends, and in commercial intercourse as well (cf. Dig. 13,5,26: to a creditor). Peculiar is the use of the word in relation to one's own children (CIL VI 11511; VI 17865; VIII 2862) or a ward (Dig. 32,37,2). In legal terms dominu…

Usus

(458 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
[German version] (lit. 'use') had several meanings in Roman law. For instance, it referred to the actual power over things and over inheritances as a condition of acquisition ( usucapio , on this also Twelve Tables, tabulae duodecim , Tab. 6,3), and the one-year preliminary stage of the legal power of the husband over the wife ( manus ), which, however, was interrupted according to the Twelve Tables (Tab. 6,4) if the wife remained outside the home for a period of three nights ( trinoctium;Cic. Flacc. 34,84; Gell. NA 3,2,12 f.; Gai. Inst. 1,111). Usus was also a right of use often founde…

Aqua et igni interdictio

(308 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
[German version] was issued in the earlier period of the Roman Republic against a fugitive Roman citizen accused of a capital crime, ruled by the magistrate in charge on the resolution of a public meeting (Liv. 25,4,9). With the acqua et igni interdictio (AII) the person concerned was denied all the essentials of life and life on Roman soil was made impossible for him. With the introduction of permanent courts of assizes (towards the end of the 2nd cent. BC, reinforced by Sulla) AII itself became the punishment for capital crime. It meant being outcast from …

Finis

(316 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
[English version] Grenze, insbes. zw. Grundstücken (z.B. Cels. Dig. 41,2,18,2). Der Grenzstein ( terminus ) war heilig; wer ihn auspflügte, war nach einer dem Numa Pompilius zugesprochenen Bestimmung samt dem Gespann verflucht ( sacer; Paul. Fest. 505,20f. L.). Die Äcker waren durch einen 5 Fuß breiten, nach den Zwölftafeln (tab. VII 4) unersitzbaren (s. usucapio ) Grenzrain getrennt (Cic. leg. 1,12,55f.). Die Grenzbereinigungsklage ( actio finium regundorum) war eine actio in personam (persönliche Klage) und doch pro vindicatione rei (auf Herausgabe, Paul. Dig. 10,1,1).…

Nuncupatio

(177 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
[English version] Nuncupare ( nomen capere) wird von dem Juristen Cincius treffend gedeutet als “genau, mit den geziemenden Worten aussprechen” (Fest. 176), später von dem Juristen Gaius als “offen benennen”. Die Zwölftafelgesetze (tab. 6,1) und die auf der Burg gesprochene Auguralformel (Varro ling. 7,8) weisen mit lingua nuncupare auf die Zunge als Werkzeug hin, die Gedanken in Worte zu fassen. Verbis nuncupare in der Devotionsformel des P. Decius Mus (Liv. 8,9,8) ist tautologisch, nomen nuncupare (Varro ling. 6,60) figura etymologica (Figuren). Das feierliche Verspreche…

Acquisitio

(170 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
[German version] Not used as a noun until late (for instance Ulp. Dig. 44,4,4,31; epit. 19), formerly and more frequently acquirere, means acquisition. The development from verb to noun corresponds to a general tendency towards a substantival style, as shown by a comparison with alienatio/alienare (‘disposal’,   alienatio ). First the disposal, then the acquisitio were worded in clear terms and made into a legal question. Res (‘things’), were acquired singly ( singulae res) or as parts of a whole ( per universitatem), (Gai. Inst. 2,97). Acquisition was carried out under ius civile, e.g…

In iure cessio

(232 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
[German version] The in iure cessio of Roman law is an act of the transfer of a right in the form of a fictitious trial, the   legis actio sacramento in rem . It is - like the   mancipatio - not dependent on the existence of a cause in law ( causa), e.g. of a purchase agreement, but rather is ‘abstract’. The in iure cessio is concerned with items in which Quiritic ownership is possible (e.g. not provincial plots of land), and is only available to Roman citizens (Gai. Inst. 2,65). Some rights, like the   ususfructus , can only be transferred by in iure cessio (Gai. Inst. 2,30). The buyer takes up the…

Actus

(559 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden) | Mlasowsky, Alexander (Hannover) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] [1] Legal action An action, especially a legal action (Dig. 49,1,12) i. a. defining characteristic of   alienatio : omnis a., per quem dominium transfertur, Cod. Iust. 5,23,1. Formal legal actions in accordance with the old   ius civile , e.g. the   mancipatio , are described as acti legitimi. Any added condition renders them ineffective. Additionally, actus can mean a utility (  servitus ), for example the right to drive draught animals and beasts of burden over a plot of land, including the right of way ( iter, Dig. 8,3,1pr.). This actus is a res mancipi, and is obtained i…

Interdictum

(783 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
[German version] A command of the  praetor or provincial governor based on his   imperium (e.g. Iulianus, Dig. 43,8,7) for the purpose of quickly ending disputes, especially over   possessio (possession) and quasi possessio (Gai. Inst. 4,139). It always touched upon public interests. First signs of interdicta are found in Plautus (Stich. 696; 748-750; Asin. 504-509), Terence (Eun. 319f.) and the lex Agraria of 111 BC (l. 18); Cic. De or. 1,10,41 alludes to it. Interdicta are partly orders, e.g. exhibeas (upon presentation) or restituas (upon restitution), hence interdicta exhibitor…

Emphyteusis

(268 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden)
[English version] (Erbpacht). Der t.t. findet sich erstmals in einer Kaiserkonstitution aus dem J. 386 n.Chr. (Gratianus/ Valentinianus/Theodosius/Arcadius Cod. Iust. 11,62,7). Schon früher, in einer Konstitution aus dem J. 315, begegnet die Bezeichnung fundus emphyteutici iuris (Cod. Iust. 11,62,1). Die e. tritt als hell. Form der Erbpacht um diese Zeit neben das originär röm. Recht am ager vectigalis. Ager vectigalis ist Gemeindeland ( ager publicus ), das gegen Zins (Steuern) auf Dauer ( in perpetuum) zur Nutzung vergeben wird (Dig. 6,3,1 pr.). Der Erbpächter wird …
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