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Hippe

(224 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Ἵππη; Híppē). [German version] [1] Mistress of Theseus Mistress of  Theseus (Hes. fr. 147 M-W = Ath. 13,557a). Her identification with Hippolyte (= Antiope, according to Cleidemus FGrH 323 F 18 = Plut. Theseus 27,13a) is reasonable considering the identification of Antiope with Hippo (Callim. H. 3,239; 266); furthermore, the name H. appears in the form of Hippo (Clem. Al. Strom. 1,73,4-5 and [1st Prologue l. 21]). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Daughter of the centaur Chiron and of Chariclo Daughter of the centaur  Chiron (Hyg. Poet. Astr. 2,18) and of Ch…

Segetia

(158 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] Roman goddess (from * sēi, 'sow (seed)': [1. 285]; from seges: Plin. HN 18,8; cf. Isid. Orig. 17,2,7). Linked to a triad in Aug. Civ. 4,8 (= Varro Antiquitates rerum divinarum fr. 166 Cardauns) in the context of a  polemical account of the multiplicity of Roman gods: Seia is stated to be responsible for the grain in the ground, S. for the same on the culm and Tutilina for it when harvested. The images ( simulacra) of these deities could be seen in circo (Plin. HN. 18,8), possibly referring to reliefs on columns (Tert. De spectaculis 8,3; cf. Macrob. Sat. 1,16,8…

Ganyctor

(222 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Γανύκτωρ; Ganýktōr). Person in the  competition between Homer and Hesiod; information on his role and genealogical position varies: [German version] [1] Son of king Amphidamas [5] of Chalcis The son of king Amphidamas [5] of Chalcis (Certamen l. 63), as such perhaps the judge in the poetic competition (Vita Hesiodi l. 10). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Son of the Locrian Phegeus from Oenoë Son of the Locrian Phegeus of Oenoë, the brother of Amphiphanes. Together they killed Hesiod for seducing their sister Ctimene, who then gave birth to S…

Thallophoria

(245 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (θαλλοφορία/ thallophoría, 'carrying of branches'). At the Panathenaea the act, performed by selected old men (Xen. Symp. 4,17,4), of presenting branches; the term thallophoria is not recorded, but thallophóros ('branch carrier': Hsch. s. v.) and the verb thallophoreîn (Eust. in Hom. Od. 1157,24) are, and these both became proverbial (Aristoph. Vesp. 542 f. with schol.; Suet. perì blasphēmiôn 8,10) in with the meaning 'useful only for carrying branches'. To this extent the modern terminology [1. 278; 2. 1215] is motivated by analogous…

Moriae

(193 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (μορίαι/ moríai). In Athens a term for the olive-trees that were sacred to Athena, the maintenance of which, by assigning special custodians, known as gnṓmones, was watched over by the Areopagus ( áreios págos ) (Lys. or. 7,25). The moriai and even their stumps, which were protected by fences ( sēkós), were sacred, and this may be connected with the high regenerative power of olive trees (cf. Hdt. 8,55). Even the Spartans are said, according to schol. Soph. OC 701, to have spared them when devastating Attica. Offences against the moriai were punished with death (Aristo…

Pandion

(379 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Πανδίων/ Pandíōn). [German version] [1] Attic King Mythical Attic king and eponymous hero of the Pandionis [2] phyle (with 11 demes [2. 370]). P. occupies the sixth place on the list of kings in Hellanicus [1 (FGrH 4, commentary, vol. 1, p. 449). this list was later expanded by duplications of P. and Cecrops, first detectable in the Marmor Parium (FGrH 239 A 1-17). Here, P. I occupies the fifth place, and P. II the eighth. Originally, the list probably only contained the kings Cecrops, P., Erechtheus and Aegeus, as only they were phyle heros while they were kings. P. is therefore one legendary …

Hippomenes

(246 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Ἱππομένης; Hippoménēs). [German version] [1] Victor in foot race against Atalante Boeotian from Onchestus, son of  Megareus (Hyg. Fab. 185) or Ares (schol. Theoc. 3,40) and Merope (Hyg. Fab. 185). The foot race between H. and  Atalante was already known to Hesiod (fr. 74 M.-W.). The most comprehensive account can be found in Ov. Met. 10,560-707 [1]: Upon his request, Venus gives him three apples which Atalante picks up during the race, causing her to lose. H. fails to perform the thanks-offering; Venus en…

Taurokathapsia

(140 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ταυροκαθαψία/ Taurokathapsía: CIG 3212, Smyrna). From taúros ('bull') and katháptein ('hang on to'). A form of bull-fighting at the Eleutheria in Larisa [3] (IG IX 531; 535; 536), in which a rider swung himself on to the bull grabbing its horns and tried to throw it to the ground (as in Heliod. 10,28-30; cf. Anth. Pal. 9,543); a relief from Smyrna and coin images from Larisa have been preserved [1. 221-224]. In inscriptions, taurokathapsia is suggested for cities of the Greek East (Aphrodisias: CIG 2759b; Ancyra: CIG 4039; Sinope: CIG 4157); it is c…

Cecrops

(658 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Κέκροψ; Kékrops). Indigenous (Apollod. 3,177) Attic first king, who was revered cultically on the acropolis of  Athens, where his grave also lay (Antiochus-Pherecydes FGrH 333 F 1). The Cecropion (building inscription Erechtheion IG I3 474,56. 56-63) is presumably identical with the structure at the south-west corner of the Erechtheion, which was taken into consideration during the construction of the temple, and can be dated before the  Persian Wars (Hecatompedon inscription IG I3 4B, 10-11). An inscription of the Augustan period names a priest of …

Laius

(699 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Λάιος; Láios). [German version] [1] Mythical Theban king Mythical Theban king, son of Labdacus, grandson of Polydorus [1] and great-grandson of Cadmus [1] (Hdt. 5,59); his mother's name is not mentioned. He lives four generations before the Trojan War (his great-great-grandson Tisamenus is a minor when the war begins: Paus. 9,5,13). He loses his father when he is one year old (Apollod. 3,40); Lycus, the brother of L.'s great-grandfather on his mother's side, Nycteus (Paus. 9,5,5), becomes his guardi…

Mulciber

(165 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] M. was an epithet for Vulcanus documented on an inscription (CIL XI 5741 from Sentinum) and in literature (amongst others Plaut. Epid. 34, Ov. Met. 2,5 and Sil. 4,668). Besides erroneous constructs (Serv. Aen. 8,724: quod mulcatus pedes; Donat. in Ter. Hec. 1,1,8: quod mutilatus; Don. in Ter. Ad. 1,2,10: a mulctando), classical derivations of the name originate mostly from the destructive power of fire, which is meant by the verb mulcere (as in Serv. Aen. 8,724; Macrob. Sat. 6,5,2; Donat. in Ter. Hec. 1,1,8). The derivation a molliendo scilicet ferro in Fest. 129 L. points …

Valetudo

(288 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] ('Health'). In contrast to the generally positive connotations of salus , v. as a term for health is neutral and is hence given qualifying epithets ( bona: Lucr. 3,102; incommoda: Liv. 5,31,9; cf. esp. Manil. 3,140f.) or can, according to context, be biased in diametrically opposed ways (positive: Liv. 4,25,3; negative: 8,12,2). The wish for good health was common (Sen. Ep. 10,4; Petron. Sat. 61), but as early as the Roman Republic appears to have transcended a purely private nature (as in Livius [I 7] Drusus…

Teleboae

(203 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τηλεβόαι; Tēlebóai). Mythical people in the west of Acarnania, on Leucas (Str. 7,321 f.) and the adjoining islands (Plin. HN 4,53). Their eponymous progenitor Teleboas is considered a son of Poseidon and the father of Pterelaus (Anaximand. FGrH 9 F 1) or as the latter's son of Pterelaus and the brother of Taph(i)us (Herodorus FGrH 31 F 15). His descriptive name means 'far-calling' (Eust. Od. 1396,3-4) or derives in a strange etymology from T.'s campaign against Electryon to steal his 'oxen' ( bóas) 'far' ( tḗle) from his homeland (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,747), to …

Quies

(89 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] Personification of quiet, the religious worship of which is documented exclusively by the mention of a sanctuary of  Q. ( fanum Quietis) on the via Labicana  (Liv. 4,41,8). The inscription Quies Augustorum can be found on coins of Diocletianus and Maximianus after their abdication in AD 305; however, it must be seen in connection with the relief they felt at their withdrawal from official duties, rather than as in fact reflecting religious practice. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) Bibliography R. Vollkommer, s. v. Q., LIMC 7.1, 612; 7.2, 489.

Pyanopsia

(193 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Πυανόψια; Pyanópsia). Attic festival in honour of Apollo, held on the 7th of the month Pyanopsiṓn (end of October). A thick pulse soup (Greek pýanos, ‘bean’ and hépsein, ‘to cook’, from which the festival's name is also derived) was cooked on the occasion, which was etiologically linked with Theseus' homecoming (Plut. Theseus 10; [2. 150-153]). A procession of boys hung the E iresiṓnē, olive branches bound with wool decoration and laden with first-fruit offerings, on the doors of houses and on the temple of Apollo (Schol. Aristoph. Equ. 72…

Tolma

(137 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τόλμα/ Tólma, 'boldness, daring'). Notes on the ancient concept of T. as a deity, although scanty and late, are unquestionable [1. 1681]: Schol. Aesch. PV 12c Harington mentions an (unidentified) sanctuary to T. and Anaideia in Athens; in App. Lib. 21 Scipio (Cornelius [I 71]) prays to T. and Phobos; Anth. Pal. 9,29,1-4 (Antiphilus [3] of Byzantium) addresses T. as the fateful inventor of sea travel (ambivalent: Anth. Pal. 7,529,1). Claudianus [2] presents the corresponding Latin …

Gorgophonus/-os

(93 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] Epithet of Athena (‘killer of Gorgo’). Epithet of Athena in Orph. H. 32,8 (but see  Gorgophone [1]). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Epithet of Perseus Epithet of Perseus (Eur. fr. 985 Nauck; Nonnus, Dion. 18,305; 30,269; 31,12; 47,506; 47,536). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [3] Son of Electryon and Alcmene Son of  Electryon and Anaxo, Alcaeus' daughter, thus Perseus' grandson.  Alcmene is mentioned as his sister, his brothers' names are listed as Stratobates, Phylonomos, Celaeno, Amphimachus, Ly…

Tenerus

(113 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τήνερος; Tḗneros). Mythical seer ( Mántis : Pind.  Fr. 51d) in Thebes, son of Apollo and the ash-nymph Melia (Melia [1]; schol.  Lycoph. 1211), who gives birth to him in the Ismenion  (Pind. Fr. 52k), where his oracle also was (schol. Pind. Pyth. 11,5); brother of Ismenius (Paus. 9,10,6). Apollo bestows on him the gift of prophecy (schol.  Lycoph. 1211). The Tenerian Plain between Thebes and Lake Copais is named after T. (Str. 9,413; Paus. 9,26,1). Pindar's seventh p…

Memnonides

(174 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Μεμνονίδες/ Memnonídes; Lat. Memnoniae aves).The legend of the birds of Memnon is closely associated with the grave of Memnon [1] on the river Aisepus. According to Paus. 10,31,6 Polygnotus had portrayed Memnon wearing a robe painted with birds in the picture of Hades on the Lesche of the Cnidians at Delphi. The extant versions probably date back to scholarly of Alexandrine poetry: according to Q. Smyrn. 2,642-655 it is the companions of Memnon who are turned into birds by Eos (simil…

Phallus

(672 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (φαλλός/ phallós, Latin phallus; from a Proto-Indo-European root * bhel-, 'blow up', 'swell up'). As bearer of the beneficent power of procreation, the male member played an important role in religion and cult. Its connection with Dionysus is particularly close: Phallus processions can be found in the rural Dionysia (Aristoph. Ach. 241-276), where the phallus is personified as Phales, to whom the cultic song is addressed (Aristoph. Ach. 263; 276), and at the great Dionysia, where the membe…
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