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Kalands Brethren

(214 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Bernd Christian
[German Version] ( fratres calendarii). In the late Middle Ages, Kalands Brethren were religious brotherhoods (II, 1; fraternitates), widespread especially in ¶ lower Saxony, membership in which was generally reserved for priests. One can divide the widely varied, guild-like alliances, named Kalands Brethren since the 13th century (after their worship assemblies on the calends of each month), into parish Kalands Brethren, Kalands Brethren founded by the nobility, and – only in northern Germany – the “Sedes Kalands Br…


(385 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Bernd Christian | Dingel, Irene
[German Version] 1. Nicolas Perrenot de (1484/85, Ornans, France – Aug 27, 1550, Augsburg) was a Burgundian official in the service of the Habsburgs, initially at the court of Besançon. After receiving the Dr.iur., Granvelle became chief councilor of the Franche-Comté in 1518. Charles V named him chief minister in 1524. After the death of his protector, Mercurino Arborio di Gattarina, Granvelle succeeded him as minister for the northern regions ¶ of the Empire in 1530. The emperor's great confidence in Granvelle, despite many accusations of bribery, made him one of…


(214 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Bernd Christian
[German Version] Malta is an island group (Malta, Gozo, Comino) in the Mediterranean, south of Sicily. It has an area of 320 km2 and a population of some 409,000 (2007). Already settled in prehistoric times, in 480 bce the islands came under the control of Carthage. After the fall of Carthage, in 281 bce Malta became part of the Roman Empire, and then (after 494 ce) part of the Byzantine Empire. More than two centuries of Arab rule (870–1090) put a permanent stamp on the islands and their culture. Later, as part of Sicily, Malta was subject to various overlor…


(175 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Bernd Christian
[German Version] (from Lat. nepos, “grandchild, nephew”) refers to efforts to place relatives in influential ecclesiastical or ecclesiastico-political offices, thus benefiting them by exploiting the power of appointment. In the bishoprics of the Holy Roman Empire and particularly in the Papal States, where celibacy prevented the establishment of dynasties, bishops and popes favored their own families in awarding dignities, offices, benefices, and fiefs. In the Curia, the support given weak popes by …

Months, Papal

(173 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Bernd Christian
[German Version] Papal months ( menses papales) were initially the first two months in a quarter, then the odd-numbered months in the year, in which a benefice had to be settled, som that the pope would have the sole right to appoint, as opposed to otherwise legitimate authorities (esp. bishops). In the early Middle Ages the popes had increasingly succeeded in obtaining this reservation; it was contractually laid down for the empire in the Vienna Concordat of 1448. Papal months, modified by privileges…

Madruzzo, Christopher

(162 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Bernd Christian
[German Version] (Jul 5, 1512, Madruzzo near Cavedine – Jul 5, 1578, Tivoli) studied at Padua and Bologna, and after assuming several canonries (Trent, Augsburg, Salzburg, Brixen) was from 1539 bishop of Trent. In 1542, the year of his consecration and appointment as cardinal, he also assumed the administration of Brixen; he repeatedly sought other archbishoprics farther north in the empire. Madrutsch, a vassal of the emperor and close friend of the pope, tried, as a theologian tending towards ref…


(165 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Bernd Christian
[English Version] (von lat. nepos »Enkel, Neffe«) bez. Bemühungen, einflußreiche kirchl. und kirchenstaatspolit. Stellen mit Verwandten zu besetzen und sie so unter Ausnutzung der eigenen Macht zu begünstigen. In den Hochstiften des Reiches und v.a. im Kirchenstaat, wo sich aufgrund des Zölibats keine Dynastien herausbilden konnten, bevorzugten Bischöfe und Päpste ihre Familien bei Vergaben von Würden, Ämtern, Pfründen und Lehen. An der Kurie war die Unterstützung schwacher Päpste durch begabte Ve…
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