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Orontes

(657 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ὀρόντης/ Oróntēs, MSS; Ὀρόντας/ Oróntas, OGIS 264,4; Ἀροάνδης/ Aroándēs, OGIS 390ff.). Armenian satraps and kings: O. [1-6]; the river O. [7]. [German version] [1] Relative of the Armenian royal family Relative of the royal family. After initial antagonism with Cyrus [3] the Younger, O. became his follower, and was subsequently convicted of treason and executed (Xen. An. 1,6; 9,29). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] O. I Persian governor of Armenia Son of the Bactrian Artasyras. As the Persian governor of Armenia, he married Rhodogune, the daughter of…

Xerxes

(685 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
(Ξέρξης/ Xérxēs; Old Persian Xšayāršā, 'ruling over heroes'). [German version] [1] X. I Achaemenid great king (486-465 BC), son of Darius [1] I and Atossa [1]. 'Born in the purple', X. was designated by his father as his successor (XPf 31 ff. = [6. 81-85]; Hdt. 7,2 f.; Porphyrogénnētos ). At the beginning of his reign he defeated an uprising in Egypt (Hdt. 7,3), and later the rebellions of Šamaš-Erība and Bēl-Šimmanni in Babylonia [3. 361 ff.]. A campaign to Greece (in 480/79 BC) - about which only accounts from the…

Uranius

(384 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
(Οὐράνιος/ Ouránios). [German version] [0] Usurper, mid 3rd cent. L. Iulius Aurelius Sulpicius Severus U. Antoninus, usurper, who had coins minted in Emesa in 253/4; very likely identical with the priest of Aphrodite Sampsigeramus (Ioh. Mal. 12 p. 296 f.) who warded off an attack on Emesa by the Persian army in 253, in the course of which their leader (in the text Sapor [1] I himself) was killed. It may be that Or. Sib. 13,158-171 and IGLS 1799-1801 also refer to these events. When with Valerianus' [2] d…

Ariobarzanes

(559 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ἀριοβαρζάνης; Ariobarzánēs, Old Persian Ariyabrdana). [German version] [1] Satrap of Dascylium Vice-governor in 407 BC under  Pharnabazus, satrap of Dascylium, and perhaps his eldest son (Xen. Hell. 1,4,7) [1]; guest-friend of the Spartan  Antalcidas (Xen. Hell. 5,1,28). Succeeded Pharnabazus in 387 BC as satrap of Propontis [1]. In 368 BC A. succeeded, with the aid of his confidant  Philiscus, in assuring the support of Athens and Sparta (Xen. Hell. 7,1,27), which he in fact obtained during his revolt a…

Arsames

(310 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ἀρσάμης). [English version] [1] Sohn des Ariaramnes Altpers. Ars̆āma, Sohn des Ariaramnes, Vater des Hystaspes, Großvater des Dareios I. [1. DB §2]. Xerxes [1. XPf §3] sagt, daß A. noch lebte, als Dareios den Thron bestieg (522/1 v.Chr.). Die ihm und seinem Vater zugeschriebenen Inschr. sind wahrscheinlich unecht [1. 12; 2. 65-67]. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) [English version] [2] Sohn Dareios' I. Sohn Dareios' I. und der Artystone. Kommandierte die Aethioper und Araber für seinen Halbbruder Xerxes beim Feldzug gegen G…

Artabanos

(1,057 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ἀρτάβ/πανος, Ἀρταπάνης, altpers. Rtabānuš, elam. Irdabanuš). [English version] [1] Bruder Dareios' I. und Onkel des Xerxes Bruder Dareios' I. und Onkel des Xerxes, der Dareios bzw. Xerxes vor den Feldzügen gegen die Skythen (Hdt. 4,83) bzw. gegen Griechenland warnte (7,10-18) [1]. Xerxes schickte ihn von Abydos an den Dardanellen zurück und beauftragte ihn für die Dauer des Krieges mit der Regentschaft (Hdt. 7,46-53). Vielleicht um 500 v.Chr. Satrap von Baktrien und so mit Irdabanuš von PF 1287, 1555 identisch [2]. Kuhrt, Amélie (London) Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) …

Orontes

(585 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ὀρόντης, Hss.; Ὀρόντας, OGIS 264,4; Ἀροάνδης, OGIS 390ff.). Armenische Satrapen und Könige: O. [1-6], der Fluß O. [7]. [English version] [1] Verwandter des armenischen Königshauses Verwandter des königlichen Hauses, nach anfänglicher Gegnerschaft Gefolgsmann Kyros' [3] d.J., wurde des Verrats überführt und hingerichtet (Xen. an. 1,6; 9,29). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [English version] [2] O. I. Pers. Statthalter von Armenien Sohn des Baktriers Artasyras, heiratete bald nach 401 v.Chr. als persischer Statthalter von Armenien Rhodogune, die Tochter Arta…

Ariobarzanes

(531 words)

Author(s): Kuhrt, Amélie (London) | Sancisi-Weerdenburg, Helen (Utrecht) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ἀριοβαρζάνης, apers. Ariyabrdana). [English version] [1] Satrap von Daskyleion 407 v. Chr. Unterstatthalter unter Pharnabazos, Satrap von Daskyleion, und vielleicht dessen ältester Sohn (Xen. hell. 1,4,7) [1]; Gastfreund des Spartaners Antalkidas (Xen. hell. 5,1,28). 387 v. Chr. Nachfolger des Pharnabazos als Satrap am Propontis [1]. 368 v. Chr. gelang es A. durch seinen Vertrauten Philiskos, sich des Beistandes Athens und Spartas zu versichern (Xen. hell. 7,1,27), den er tatsächlich während seiner Rev…

Demonax

(428 words)

Author(s): Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Köln) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony)
(Δημῶναξ oder Δαμῶναξ). [English version] [1] D. aus Mantineia Schiedsrichter in Kyrene um 550 v.Chr. Angesehener Aristokrat, der um 550 v.Chr. auf Anraten des Delphischen Orakels zum “Schiedsrichter” (καταρτιστήρ) in Kyrene bestellt wurde (Hdt. 4,161). Um die Gegensätze dort beizulegen, reformierte D. die drei Phylen, in die er die verschiedenen Kolonisten- und Zuwanderergruppen - Theraier und Perioiken, Peloponnesier und Kreter, “Nesioten”, d.h. Leute von den (ionischen?) Inseln - neu einteilte [1]. Die Mach…

Nikomedes

(1,447 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Folkerts, Menso (München) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
(Νικομήδης). [English version] [1] Spartanischer Heerführer, 458 oder 457 v.Chr. Angehöriger des spartanischen Königshauses der Agiadai, Sohn des Kleombrotos [2], Bruder des Pausanias, des Siegers von Plataiai. N. führte 458 oder 457 v.Chr. als Vormund seines unmündigen Neffen Pleistoanax ein spartan. Heer zur Unterstützung der Bewohner der Landschaft Doris gegen die Phoker und besiegte auf dem Rückmarsch die Athener bei Tanagra (Thuk. 1,107,2-108,1; Diod. 11,79,4-80,6; Plut. Kimon 17,4-9; Plut. Perikles 10,1-4). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [English version] [2] N.I. …

Valerianus

(929 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Q. Cornelius V. Author of an antiquarian compilation, 1st cent. Roman equestrian of the 1st cent. AD (probably c.45 praef. vexillariorum in Thracia). Author of an antiquarian compilation mentioned by Plinius [1] (Pliny the Elder) as source of books 3 (?), 8, 10, 14 and 15 of his Naturalis historia, and quoted at 3,108 (?), 10,5 and 14,11. Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht Bibliography PIR2 C 1471. [German version] [2] P. Licinius V. Roman emperor 253-260, born 199 (thus the gist of Ioh. Mal. 12 p. 298; SHA Valer. 5,1 is false); from a noble family (Aur. V…

Nicomedes

(1,542 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(Νικομήδης; Nikomḗdēs). [German version] [1] Spartan commander, 458 or 457 BC Member of the Spartan royal family of the Agiadae, son of Cleombrotus [2], brother of Pausanias, the victor of Plataeae. In 458 or 457 BC, N. led a Spartan army as the guardian of his underage nephew Pleistoanax to support the inhabitants of the Doris region against the Phocians and on the return march defeated the Athenians near Tanagra (Thuc. 1,107,2-108,1; Diod. Sic. 11,79,4-80,6; Plut. Cimon 17,4-9; Plut. Pericles 10,1-4). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] N. I of Bithynia King from 280 BC S…

Demonax

(429 words)

Author(s): Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony)
(Δημῶναξ; Dēmônax or Δαμῶναξ; Damônax). [German version] [1] D. of Mantinea Arbitrator in Cyrene about 550 BC Respected aristocrat who was appointed as ‘arbitrator’ (καταρτιστήρ; katartistḗr) in  Cyrene about 550 BC on the advice of the Delphic Oracle (Hdt. 4,161). To resolve the internal conflicts, D. reformed the three phylai in which he redistributed the different groups of colonists and immigrants, the Theraeans and Perioeci, Peloponnesians and Cretans, ‘Nesiotai’, i.e. people from the (Ionian?) islands [1]. D. restricted the royal power o…

Mithradates

(3,342 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(auch Mithridates, Μιθραδάτης, Μιθριδάτης). Der PN Μιθραδάτης ist persisch - Mz. [4. 10-17] bezeugen die urspr. Schreibweise, Inschr. (Syll.3 709 passim; 741,14,23; 742,4; 12) bieten vereinzelt schon zeitgenössisch Μιθριδάτης/ Mithridates (griech. ILS 37,8, lat. ILS 38,28; 60,5; 9) wie meist in späteren Dokumenten (Syll.3 785,10) und Hss. Es handelt sich bei dem Wechsel α/ι um eine seit dem 5. Jh. nachweisbare, in der gesprochenen Sprache auftretende Vokalschwächung in der Kompositionsfuge, die erst allmählich von der geschriebenen Spra…

Septimius

(3,206 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Beck, Jan-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Et al.
Nomen gentile, probably originally Etruscan, occurred at Rome only from the 1st cent. BC onwards. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] A certain S. from Camerinum was commissioned to recruit followers for Catilina at Picenum in 63 BC, presumably because he was of the Umbrian-Picenan municipal nobility (cf. CIL I2 1921; 1929) (Sall. Catil. 27,1). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] Friend of Horace's; he hoped to enter the cohors amicorum of a member of the imperial household through his relationship with the latter (Hor. Carm.…

Stratonice

(826 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Στρατονίκη; Stratoníkē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Alexander [2] I, c. 500 BC Daughter of the Macedonian king Alexander [II 2] I. In the winter of 429/8 BC, she was married by her brother Perdiccas [2] II to Seuthes [1], nephew of the Odrysian king Sitalces [1], in exchange for Seuthes' having achieved the withdrawal of Thracian troops from Macedonia (Thuc. 2,101,5 f.). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) [German version] [2] Wife of Antigonus [1], 4th cent. BC Daughter of one Corrhagus, married to Antigonus [1], mother of Demetrius [2] Poliorketes and a Philippus, who died…

Mithridates

(3,920 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(also Mithradates; Μιθριδάτης/ Mithridátēs, Μιθραδάτης/ Mithradátēs ). The personal name Μιθραδάτης is Persian - coins [4. 10-17] attest to the original spelling. Inscriptions, (Syll.3 709 passim; 741,14,23; 742,4; 12) sporadically give Μιθριδάτης, even contemporary ones (Greek ILS 37,8, Latin ILS 38,28; 60,5; 9), which is the form found in most later documents (Syll.3 785,10) and manuscripts. The change α/ι is due to weakening of vowels at the morpheme boundary, demonstrable from the 5th century onwar…

Archelaos

(1,199 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Pietsch, Christian (Mainz) | Et al.
(Ἀρχέλαος). [English version] [1] Maked. König (ca. 413-399 v. Chr.) Sohn des Perdikkas, König von Makedonien ca. 413-399 v. Chr., nach Platons gehässiger Darstellung (Gorg. 471) Sohn einer Sklavin und durch Mord auf den Thron gekommen; doch erscheint er um 415 in einem Vertrag mit Athen nach Perdikkas und dessen Bruder Alketas an dritter Stelle, also als legitim (IG I3 89,60). Die Ermordung anderer Thronanwärter ist bei den Argeadai, die kein festes Nachfolgerecht kannten, nicht ungewöhnlich. Mit den Athenern stand er auf gutem Fuß, lieferte ihnen Holz…

Cleopatra

(4,237 words)

Author(s): Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Stegmann, Helena (Bonn) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Κλεοπάτρα; Kleopátra, Lat. Cleopatra). I. Mythology [German version] [I 1] Daughter of Boreas and Oreithyia Daughter of  Boreas and  Oreithyia, first wife of  Phineus. C. was rejected in favour of  Idaea [3], whom Phineus married as his second wife; her sons were blinded (Apollod. 3.200; Hyg. Fab. 18). Prescendi, Francesca (Geneva) [German version] [I 2] Daughter of Idas and Marpessa Daughter of  Idas and  Marpessa, wife of  Meleager. After her abduction by Apollo she was also called ‘Alcyone’ after her mother's …

Archelaus

(1,291 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Pietsch, Christian (Mainz) | Et al.
(Ἀρχέλαος; Archélaos). [German version] [1] Macedonian king (ca. 413-399 BC) Son of  Perdiccas, king of Macedonia about 413-399 BC, who according to Plato's spiteful representation (Gorg. 471) was the son of a slave woman and had ascended to the throne by murder. However, he appeared about 415 in a contract with Athens in third place after Perdiccas and his brother Alcetas, i.e. as legitimate (IG I3 89,60). Murdering other pretenders to the throne was not uncommon among the  Argeads, who had no firm rule of succession. He was on a good footing with the Atheni…
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