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Tao Tsang

(86 words)

Author(s): Seiwert, Hubert
[German Version] (Pinyin: Dào Zàng), “Treasury of the Tao,” a canonical collection of Taoist texts (Canon: VIII). The standard 1926 edition (with several reprs.) is based on a 1445 printing of more than 5,300 scrolls ( juan), with supplements added in 1607; it comprises almost 1,500 titles, including liturgical, historical, and philosophical texts. Hubert Seiwert Bibliography N. Ōfuchi, “The formation of the Taoist Canon,” in: H. Welch & A. Seidel, eds., Facets of Taoism


(154 words)

Author(s): Seiwert, Hubert
[German Version] (638 – 713). Huineng is the sixth patriarch of Chinese Chan Buddhism (Japanese: Zen). According to various traditions, he sought out Hongren (602–675), the fifth patriarch of the Chan school, in 674. Although he had no formal education and was unable to read, he achieved enlightenment and was secretly entrusted with the patriarchal dignity by Hongren. Afterwards he lived in obscurity for several years; at the age of 39 he took monastic vows. His major work is the Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch ( Liuzu Tanjung [ Liu-Tsu t'an-ch'ing]), which was written down by h…


(561 words)

Author(s): Seiwert, Hubert
[German Version] After Buddhism and Catholicism, Caodaism is the third largest religion in Vietnam (practiced by an estimated 3% to 10% of the population). Its name derives from the title of the supreme divinity, Cao Dai (lit. “highest palace”). Caodaism combines Buddhist, Taoist, Confucian and Christian elements with aspects of Vietnam's indigenous religion. Outside Vietnam, Caodaism is practiced almost exclusively by Vietnamese emigrants.…

Bailian Jiao

(329 words)

Author(s): Seiwert, Hubert
[German Version] (Pai-lien chiao), lit. “White…

Yiguan Dao

(352 words)

Author(s): Seiwert, Hubert
[English Version] (auch I-kuan Tao, wörtl. »Weg der durchdringenden Einheit«) ist eine im späten 19.Jh. in China (: III.,3.) entstandene Rel. In den 30er und 40er Jahren des 20.Jh. verfügte sie über eine Anhängerschaft von mehreren Mio. und war in ganz China verbreitet. Nach Gründung der Volksrepublik China (1949) wurde Y. als »konterrevolutionäre Sekte« auf dem chinesischen Festland verboten und gewaltsam verfolgt. Erst seit den 80er Jahren sind wieder Aktivitäten nachweisbar, Y. ist jedoch weite…


(4,368 words)

Author(s): Seiwert, Hubert | Reiter, Florian C.
[German Version] I. History Philosophical Taoism (Daoism) is associated with names from the history of China’s traditional literature such as Lao Tsu (Tao te Ching) and Zhuangzi. Their influence can be seen in belles lettres and in philological and philosophical commentaries. The situation of religious Taoism (“Celestial Master” Taoism: Tianshidao or Cheng Yi Taoism), which first appeared as a religion in China in the 2nd century ce, is quite different. Its history falls into three periods: (1) the formative period, 2nd–6th centuries; (2) the period of consolidation, 7th–10th centuries; (3) the period of ritual diversification and expansion, 11th century to the present (monastic Taoism, Quanzhen-Taoism). 1. First period.

Religious Studies

(4,620 words)

Author(s): Rudolph, Kurt | Seiwert, Hubert | Hock, Klaus
[German Version] I. History 1. The history of religious studies, or the science of religion (Ger. Religionswissenschaft) is a function of its definition or conception; it is thus somewhat ambiguous at ¶ …


(5,377 words)

Author(s): Sautter, Hermann | Seiwert, Hubert | Mürmel, Heinz | Koschorke, Klaus
[German Version] I. Geopolitical Considerations, Concept – II. History of Religions – III. Modern Asian Religions outside Asia – IV. Christianity I. Geopolitical Considerations, Concept Culturally, economically, and politically, Asia is extraordinarily heterogeneous. The Islamic states of the Near East with their oil wealth are part of…

China, People's Republic of

(8,374 words)

Author(s): Schmidt-Glintzer, Helwig | Seiwert, Hubert | Chi Chung Lee, Archie | Tze Ming Ng, Peter
[German Version] I. General – II. History and Civilization – III. History of Religion – IV. Chinese Religions and Missiology – V. Christianity I. General

Ancestors, Cult of

(3,486 words)

Author(s): Balz, Heinrich | Harich-Schwarzbauer, Henriette | Podella, Thomas | Seiwert, Hubert | Michaels, Axel | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Greco-Roman Antiquity – III. Old Testament – IV. China – V. India – VI. Missiology I. Religious Studies All ancestors that are worshiped are dead, but not all dead people are ancestors, and not every mortuary ritual represents an ancestor cult. For an ancestor cult, there must be a consciousness of a familial and genealogical connection with the ancestors over one or more generations, …


(4,324 words)

Author(s): Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria | Aune, David E. | Fitschen, Klaus | Leppin, Volker | Boyer, Paul S | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. New Testament – III. Church History – IV. North America – V. Systematic Theology – VI. Islam – VII. China I. Religious Studies Millenarianism (chiliasm) refers to the notion of a 1,000-year (Lat. millenarius, Gk χίλια/ chília) period ¶ immediately preceding the Last Judgment and the end of the world. This c…